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Supplement Reviews

  • Musashi Bulk Mass Gain vs. Optimum Nutrition Pro Gainer

    What is Musashi Bulk Mass Gain?

    Musashi Bulk Mass Gain is the ideal lean mass gaining supplement. Packed with 26 grams of protein, 22 grams of carbohydrates, and 223 calories per serving, Musashi Bulk Mass Gain is ready to help you pack on lean muscle mass without the fat gain.

     

    Highlights

    • Features a whey protein blend with concentrate and isolate
    • Provides a middle-ground for carb content, making it an ideal post-workout shake
    • Offers a complete vitamin and mineral spectrum
    • Ideal for lean mass gain (more on that below)

     

    Why You Should Use Musashi Bulk Mass Gain

    Musashi Bulk Mass Gain is a unique protein supplement in that it promotes bulk but not the type of bulk you'd expect. With only 223 calories and 26 grams of protein per serving, Musashi Bulk Mass Gain isn't your typical maltodextrin-loaded gainer. It's built to promote muscle gains while minimizing fat gains. If you're trying to put on as much weight as possible with no regard for how much weight comes from body fat, then Optimum Nutrition Pro Gainer may be what you're looking for.

     

    We recommend using it right after a workout as it has a high protein content and enough carbohydrates to keep cortisol in check. (1-7)

     

    Things to Watch Out for with Musashi Bulk Mass Gain

    A couple of things to note: Musashi Bulk Mass Gain features a vitamin and mineral blend so if you're already taking a multi-vitamin, you may need to put that aside until you finish with Musashi Bulk Mass Gain.

     

    As mentioned above, Musashi Bulk Mass Gain is a bulking supplement but it's not on the same level as Pro Gainer in terms of overall calories and carbohydrate content. This may be a good or bad thing depending on what you're after. Want to avoid fat gain while building muscle? Musashi Bulk Mass Gain is what you need.

     

     

    What is Optimum Nutrition Pro Gainer?

    When size is all that matters, Optimum Nutrition Pro Gainer may become your new favourite supplement. Featuring 650 calories per serving, Pro Gainer is going to be an effective way to get those extra calories you need for recovery and growth.

     

    Highlights

    • Protein blend includes Whey Protein Isolate, Whey Protein Concentrate, Calcium Caseinate, Egg Albumin, Hydrolysed Whey Peptides, and Glutamine Peptides
    • Offers 60 grams of protein
    • Provides 85 grams of carbohydrates, making it an ideal post-workout supplement
    • Ideal for size gains, regardless of muscle-to-fat ratio

     

    Why You Should Use Optimum Nutrition Pro Gainer

    When used as directed, Optimum Nutrition Pro Gainer may boost muscle recovery and protein synthesis while promoting muscle mass growth. (1-6) Pro Gainer is a big-name brand that provides you with a huge amount of calories. This is exactly what you need when you're chasing after size; however, you have to question what type of size you want.

     

    Do you want to get huge no matter how much extra fat mass you pack on? Or do you want a leaner physique that emphasizes lean mass with as little fat as possible? If you want the former, go with Pro Gainer. Want the latter? Go with Musashi Bulk Mass Gain.

     

    Things to Watch Out for with Optimum Nutrition Pro Gainer

    Just like with Musashi Bulk Mass Gain, Pro Gainer has a vitamin and mineral blend. If you are taking a multi-vitamin, then you may want to quit using it until after you're finished with Pro Gainer.

     

    Also, Pro Gainer contains a lot of maltodextrin. This simple carbohydrate may spike blood sugar levels so the ideal time to use Pro Gainer is immediately after a workout or as soon as you wake up.

     

    References

    1. Tsutsumi R, Tsutsumi YM. Peptides and proteins in whey and their benefits for human health. Austin J Nutri Food Sci 2014;1(1): 1002

     

    1. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, Karlsson HK, Köhnke R. Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):269S-73S.

     

    1. Norton, Layne, Layman, Donald. Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise. J. Nutr. February 2006 vol. 136 no. 2 533S-537S.

     

    1. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Sep;48(3):347-51.

     

    1. Mourier A, Bigard AX, de Kerviler E, Roger B, Legrand H, Guezennec CY. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med. 1997 Jan;18(1):47-55.

     

    1. De Lorenzo A, Petroni ML, Masala S, Melchiorri G, Pietrantuono M, Perriello G, Andreoli A. Effect of acute and chronic branched-chain amino acids on energy metabolism and muscle performance. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):291-7.

     

    1. St-Onge MP, Bosarge A. Weight-loss diet that includes consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerol oil leads to a greater rate of weight and fat mass loss than does olive oil. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):621-6.
  • EHP Labs Beyond BCAA vs. BSN Amino X

    What is EHP Labs Beyond BCAA?

     

    EHP Labs Beyond BCAA is a branched chain amino acid supplement that is an industry favourite thanks to its properly dosed amino acid formula. Featuring a 2:1:1 ratio of Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine, respectively, Beyond BCAA may be able to help boost protein synthesis, trigger muscle growth, and support post-workout recovery.

     

    Highlights:

    • Provides 5 grams of BCAAs, which have proven to be essential for performance, growth, and recovery
    • Features an electrolyte blend to support intra-workout performance
    • B-Vitamin complex is essential for recovery
    • Citrulline Malate has been suggested to promote intra-workout performance (1-6)

     

    Why You Should Use EHP Labs Beyond BCAA

     

    What are your fitness goals?

    Do you want to increase lean muscle tissue?

    Looking to promote healthy weight loss?

    Need to recover faster?

     

    An elite branched chain amino acid supplement can help you achieve all of these goals. The amino acids that you'll find in EHP Labs Beyond BCAA are properly dosed to take advantage of the scientifically validated 2:1:1 ratio for maximum benefits.

     

    BSN Amino X offers a greater dosage of amino acids at 10 grams per serving; however, BSN does not include a breakdown of the quantity of each ingredient. Without knowing the exact amount of the essential amino acids per serving, you can't know if you're getting the 2:1:1 ratio that is so critical for results. You can easily reach a pure 10-gram dosage of Beyond BCAA by simply doubling the dose, assuming you aren't worried about cost.

     

    Things to Watch Out for with EHP Labs Beyond BCAA

     

    Continuing with the idea above with getting a 10-gram dosage from Beyond BCAA, the label advertises itself as a 10-gram dosage. The truth is that Beyond BCAA requires you to double the dosage if you want reach that 10-gram dose. BSN Amino X, on the other hand, provides 10 grams of amino acids with one serving. The catch there is that you don't know the exact amount of each amino acid. This results in something of a draw for both brands, making them equal with the amino acids they provide in a single serving.

     

    What is BSN Amino X?

     

    Amino X features a unique amino acid and electrolyte blend. Not only will you find essential amino acids, which are necessary for muscle growth, performance, and recovery but you'll also get a variety of non-essential amino acids that can further your fitness gains.

     

    Highlights:

    • Provides 10 grams of amino acids for performance and muscle building
    • Electrolyte blend supports intra-workout performance
    • Features Taurine to boost energy levels
    • L-Citrulline is included and this may help to boost nitric oxide production (1-6)

     

    Why You Should Use BSN Amino X

     

    BSN Amino X is a high performing amino acid supplement that features the essentials as well as some extras that have all been suggested to support your fitness goals.

     

    At 10 grams per serving, BSN Amino X may arguably be superior to EHP Labs Beyond BCAA; however, this cannot be confirmed because Amino X uses a proprietary blend. Within a proprietary blend, you aren't told the exact amount of the ingredients that you're getting. Still, with that said, at 10 grams, there is a good chance that Amino X is following the scientifically proven 2:1:1 ratio.

     

    What's more, Amino X provides electrolytes to help support performance along with a few other non-essential amino acids, which may promote energy levels and recovery. (1-6)

     

    Things to Watch Out for With BSN Amino X

     

    The only thing you have to be aware of is that BSN Amino X uses a proprietary blend, which means it's a guessing game with the exact amount of each ingredient. EHP Labs doesn't do this and that alone may be the deciding factor for you.

     

    However, at 10 grams per serving, there's a good chance that your body is getting an effective dose of amino acids without the need to double dose.

     

    Conclusion

     

    You have two highly effective amino acid supplements that can both do an excellent job at supporting your fitness goals of muscle building, weight loss, and performance enhancement.

     

    If you aren't a fan of putting your trust into proprietary blends then you may opt to go with the EHP Labs Beyond BCAA. If you want a high dose per serving of different essential amino acids, then your best bet is BSN Amino X.

     

    Still not sure? Try both and see which one your body responds best to.

     

    References

     

    1. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, Karlsson HK, Köhnke R. Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):269S-73S.

     

    1. Norton, Layne, Layman, Donald. Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise. J. Nutr. February 2006 vol. 136 no. 2 533S-537S.

     

    1. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Sep;48(3):347-51.

     

    1. Mourier A, Bigard AX, de Kerviler E, Roger B, Legrand H, Guezennec CY. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med. 1997 Jan;18(1):47-55.

     

    1. De Lorenzo A, Petroni ML, Masala S, Melchiorri G, Pietrantuono M, Perriello G, Andreoli A. Effect of acute and chronic branched-chain amino acids on energy metabolism and muscle performance. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):291-7.

     

    1. Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cb28e0.
  • Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey Protein Powder vs. EHP Labs OxyWhey

    What is Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey Protein Powder?

    One of the leading brands of protein in the industry, Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey Protein Powder isn't just a veteran supplement; it's also one of the highest quality products out there. Armed with a barebones protein blend, Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey Protein Powder can support a number of fitness goals including muscle building, weight managements, and sports recovery. (1-6)

     

    Highlights:

    • 24 grams of protein per serving
    • Provides 5.5 grams of BCAAs for muscle building and recovery
    • Includes glutamine and glutamic acid
    • Protein blend includes isolate, concentrate, and peptides
    • Ideal for any time of day including before and after a workout (1-6)

     

    Why You Should Use Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey Protein Powder

    If you're looking for a protein that doesn't have a long list of additives, Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey Protein Powder is for you. It provides 24 grams of protein per serving from a blend of isolate, concentrate, and peptides. This means you'll get an immediate release of amino acids along with an extended release. This is ideal for preventing muscle catabolism and increasing an anabolic environment for recovery and growth. (1-6)

     

    EHP Labs OxyWhey also provides you with 24 grams of protein from a blend so the two proteins are a draw as far as amino acid content is concerned. The biggest difference between the two brands is that EHP Labs includes metabolic support, which Gold Standard Whey does not include. More on that below.

     

    Things to Watch Out for with Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey Protein Powder

    Optimum Nutrition 100% Gold Standard Whey Protein Powder is a solid protein choice. Its ingredient list is straightforward and it focuses on the bare essentials. The only thing you may have to watch out for is the use of artificial sweeteners and artificial flavouring if you have an allergy to either.

     

    Due to its barebones ingredient list, Gold Standard doesn't have any bells and whistles like EHP Labs OxyWhey does. If you're looking for extras in your protein, then this may be a deal breaker.

     

    What is EHP Labs OxyWhey?

    EHP Labs OxyWhey can be looked at as the upgrade to your average protein supplement. It contains 24 grams of high quality protein but it also has a few extras in the mix to support a variety of fitness goals. Providing you with an amino acid blend as well as thermogenic ingredients, OxyWhey is the muscle supporting, fat burning supplement you've been waiting for.

     

    Highlights

    • 24 grams of protein per serving
    • Provides 5.3 grams of BCAAs for muscle building and recovery
    • Protein blend includes isolate, concentrate, and micellar casein
    • Green tea extract may help to boost fat burning
    • Ideal for recovery, growth, and meal replacement (1-6)

     

    Why You Should Use EHP Labs OxyWhey

    EHP Labs OxyWhey is a top of the line protein supplement that can be used first thing in the morning, before a workout, or as a meal replacement. EHP Labs goes above and beyond with their formula, including fat burners such as Green Tea Extract and Chromium Picolinate. These additions may make it a more attraction option than Optimum Nutrition 100% Whey Gold Standard. If you're not in need of extras, then O.N. is an excellent choice.

     

    Things to Watch Out for with EHP Labs OxyWhey

    It does contain a few thermogenic ingredients but the problem here is that you have no idea how much has been added. Since the fat burners are towards the bottom of the ingredient list, there's a good chance that they are under-dosed.

     

    Conclusion

    What you have here are two excellent protein supplement choices. Both EHP Labs and Optimum Nutrition offer a specialized protein blend to support your fitness goals. The only difference between the two is that EHP Labs offers a few fat burners within the mix. This shouldn't be what sways your decision though as the fat burning ingredients are not dosed to achieve maximum effectiveness. If your budget allows, we'd say try both and see which protein you notice more results with.

     

    References

    1. Tsutsumi R, Tsutsumi YM. Peptides and proteins in whey and their benefits for human health. Austin J Nutri Food Sci 2014;1(1): 1002

     

    1. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, Karlsson HK, Köhnke R. Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):269S-73S.

     

    1. Norton, Layne, Layman, Donald. Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise. J. Nutr. February 2006 vol. 136 no. 2 533S-537S.

     

    1. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Sep;48(3):347-51.

     

    1. Mourier A, Bigard AX, de Kerviler E, Roger B, Legrand H, Guezennec CY. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med. 1997 Jan;18(1):47-55.

     

    1. De Lorenzo A, Petroni ML, Masala S, Melchiorri G, Pietrantuono M, Perriello G, Andreoli A. Effect of acute and chronic branched-chain amino acids on energy metabolism and muscle performance. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):291-7.
  • EHP Labs Beyond BCAA vs. SciVation Xtend

    What is EHP Labs Beyond BCAA?

    EHP Labs Beyond BCAA is an exclusive branched chain amino acid supplement that features a 2:1:1 ratio of the proven amino acids, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine, respectively. It's also packed with a unique vitamin, mineral, and electrolyte blend to support intra-workout performance and post-workout recovery.

     

    Highlights:

    • Provides 5 grams of BCAAs for muscle building and recovery
    • Includes B-vitamin complex
    • Citrulline Malate has been added to support athletic performance
    • Electrolyte blend helps to replenish nutrients lost during exercise (1-6)

     

    Why You Should Use EHP Labs Beyond BCAA

    Branched chain amino acids are critical if you want to trigger protein synthesis, increase muscle growth, and support rapid recovery. EHP Labs Beyond BCAA is a unique blend of the most important amino acids along with proven ingredients for recovery and performance.

     

    At 5 grams of BCAAs per serving, EHP Labs holds a firm command as a strong industry average. In fact, many studies recommend the 5-gram dosage. SciVation Xtend BCAAs pulls ahead of EHP Labs in this area as it provides 7 grams of BCAAs per serving without the need to double the dose as you do with Beyond BCAAs. More on that below.

     

    EHP Labs Beyond BCAAs is built to support intra-workout performance and it shows with the inclusion of B-vitamins, electrolytes, and endurance supporting non-essential amino acids.

     

    Things to Watch Out for with EHP Labs Beyond BCAA

    The advertising of the EHP Labs Beyond BCAA claims the product contains 10 grams of BCAAs per serving. They are basing this on you doubling the dose, which would cut the product life in half. Keep in mind that per serving, you're only getting 5 grams of BCAAs. However, this should be more than enough, of course, especially if you're using protein supplement in addition to BCAAs.

     

    What is SciVation Xtend BCAAs?

    SciVation Xtend BCAAs is a high level branched chain amino acid supplement providing you with 7 grams of the essential amino acids per serving. Used as directed, Xtend BCAAs may promote muscle building and recovery.

     

    Highlights:

    • Provides 7 grams of BCAAs for performance and muscle building
    • Includes Vitamin B-6
    • Electrolyte blend supports intra-workout performance
    • Citrulline Malate boosts recovery and performance (1-6)

     

    Why You Should Use SciVation Xtend BCAAs

    At 7 grams of BCAAs per serving, SciVation Xtend BCAAs is an above-average amino acid supplement that has been dosed with the top performers in mind. Maintaining the proven 2:1:1 ratio, SciVation Xtend BCAAs out performs EHP Labs for total BCAA content without the need for a second scoop of the product.

     

    Just like Beyond BCAAs, SciVation Xtend BCAAs contains other ingredients including an electrolyte blend and Citrulline Malate. The two are neck and neck in this category except that EHP Labs has included a B-vitamin complex. This can be a pro or a con, depending on what other supplements you're taking.

     

    Things to Watch Out for With SciVation Xtend BCAAs

    SciVation Xtend BCAAs is an excellent recovery and performance product and the only thing you would need to watch out for would be if you're living a lifestyle that is free of artificial sweeteners and flavours because this product has both.

     

    Conclusion

    There is no denying that both of these products are top-notch. It really comes down to whether you want or need all of the extras that EHP Labs provides. If you are looking for a straight BCAA-focused supplement dosed at the highest level then SciVation Xtend BCAAs may be your best bet. We'd recommend trying both to see which one you see better results with.

     

    References

    1. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, Karlsson HK, Köhnke R. Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):269S-73S.
    1. Norton, Layne, Layman, Donald. Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise. J. Nutr. February 2006 vol. 136 no. 2 533S-537S.
    1. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Sep;48(3):347-51.
    1. Mourier A, Bigard AX, de Kerviler E, Roger B, Legrand H, Guezennec CY. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med. 1997 Jan;18(1):47-55.
    1. De Lorenzo A, Petroni ML, Masala S, Melchiorri G, Pietrantuono M, Perriello G, Andreoli A. Effect of acute and chronic branched-chain amino acids on energy metabolism and muscle performance. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):291-7.
    1. Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cb28e0.
  • Quest Low Carb Protein Bars vs. Clif Bars

    What are Quest Low Carb Protein Bars?

    Quest Low Carb Protein Bars are the high protein, high fibre supplement that has changed the way the industry looks at on-the-go nutrition. Considered one of the cleanest protein bars in the industry, Quest Low Carb Protein Bars are ideal for anyone looking to supplement more protein in their diet for fitness or weight loss.

     

    Highlights:

    • 20 to 21 grams of protein per bar
    • 14 grams of fibre
    • Focus on Whey Protein Isolate, making these bars ideal for post-workout and to break a long fast
    • Avoids common fillers and artificial ingredients that you'll find in other protein bars

     

    Why You Should Use Quest Low Carb Protein Bars

    One of the best reasons to use Quest Low Carb Protein Bars is for fitness gains and results. Quest uses a high-quality whey protein isolate, providing you with 20 to 21 grams of protein per bar. Compare that to only 9 to 10 grams of protein offered by Clif Bars.

     

    Whey isolate will provide you with the amino acids you'll need to protect muscle mass, promote muscle growth, and boost recovery. (1-6)

     

    Quest also provides 14 grams of fibre per bar, which is rare of a protein supplement. This extra fibre will help you meet your daily needs for the nutrient and it will help with the digestion and assimilation of the protein.

     

    Best of all, Quest Low Carb Protein Bars have very low sugar content, making them perfect for weight loss or low-carb lifestyles. Clif Bars, on the other hand, are high in carbohydrate content with 22 grams of sugar per bar.

     

    Things to Watch Out for With Quest Low Carb Protein Bars

    Quest recently released a line of protein bars that utilize the artificial sweetener, sucralose. If you are sensitive to this sweetener, you'll want to stick with their original bar line-up.

     

    What are Clif Bars?

    Clif Bars are the popular meal supplement bar that is ideal for those who are very active but may not necessarily be inside of a gym. Hikers, for example, love Clif Bars due to its moderate protein and high carbohydrate and healthy fat content.

     

    Highlights:

    • 9 to 10 grams of protein per bar
    • High carbohydrate content at around 40 grams per bar – Ideal for endurance activities
    • Many flavours are vegan friendly and organically sourced
    • Considered some of the best tasting bars in the industry

     

    Why You Should Use Clif Bars

    Packing around 250 calories per bar along with a lot of flavour, Clif Bars make an ideal on-the-go snack for anyone who is highly active. Perfect for hiking or long workouts, Clif Bars provide you with a decent amount of protein and a lot of carbohydrates, which help to fuel your body.

     

    Quest Bars, on the other hand, have a very low net carbohydrate intake, which is ideal for fitness-specific goals but may not be the best choice when you're on a trail for 5 hours, for example.

     

    Clif Bars are also an ideal option for those with a vegan or environmentally focused lifestyle as many of the bars are vegan-friendly.

     

    Things to Watch Out for With Clif Bars

    Clif Bars focus on soy protein, which may be great for some but problematic for others. Diets high in processed soy have been shown to cause a number of potential issues with hormonal imbalance, especially for men. If you are trying to avoid soy, you may want to stick with Quest Bars.

     

    Conclusion

    Quest Low Carb Protein Bars and Clif Bars are two great nutritional supplements but for very different reasons.

     

    Quest Low Carb Protein Bars are ideal for anyone looking to protect and promote muscle mass growth and for those on a low-carb diet.

     

    Clif Bars are for someone who is very active and needs carbohydrate-based fuel to sustain their energy levels. Hikers and bicyclists would benefit most from these bars.

     

    Are you a fitness enthusiast who also loves to hike? Buy both and use them accordingly: Quest Low Carb Protein Bars after a workout and a Clif Bar during a long hike.

     

    References

    1. Tsutsumi R, Tsutsumi YM. Peptides and proteins in whey and their benefits for human health. Austin J Nutri Food Sci 2014;1(1): 1002
    1. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, Karlsson HK, Köhnke R. Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):269S-73S.
    1. Norton, Layne, Layman, Donald. Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise. J. Nutr. February 2006 vol. 136 no. 2 533S-537S.
    1. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Sep;48(3):347-51.
    1. Mourier A, Bigard AX, de Kerviler E, Roger B, Legrand H, Guezennec CY. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med. 1997 Jan;18(1):47-55.
    1. De Lorenzo A, Petroni ML, Masala S, Melchiorri G, Pietrantuono M, Perriello G, Andreoli A. Effect of acute and chronic branched-chain amino acids on energy metabolism and muscle performance. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):291-7.
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