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  • 4 Must Have Reasons to Add Acetyl-L-Carnitine to Your Supplement Arsenal

    Carnitine is one of those supplements that most people have heard of, but may have never taken the time to get to know better. Often regarded as an amino acid (though it falls somewhere on the spectrum between amino acid and a vitamin), it is considered conditionally essential, since your body can make it under normal conditions, but occasionally may still necessitate exogenous consumption.

    Being hard-core athletes, your body is hardly ever performing under “normal” conditions, to show how you may be opening up a deficiently in this amino acid without ever knowing it.

    One thing’s for sure- regardless of where you are, there is a high likelihood that carnitine can help you reach your destination faster.

    The Many Faces Of Carnitine

    When reading carnitine supplement labels, it is natural to get overwhelmed by the many types available, including L-Carnitine, L-Carnitine L-Tartrate, and Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Are they all the same? Yes, and no.

    For instance, L-Carnitine is considered the purest manifestation of its form, but boasts the poorest absorption. This is enhanced in the L-Tartrate version, and even better in the Acetyl-L formulation, though this form is best suited for enhancing cognitive function as it crosses the blood-brain barrier efficiently.

    For this reason, the L-Tartrate version is usually preferred for its role in athletic enhancement, whilst Acetyl-L-Carnitine is mainly sought after as a nootropic agent. But don’t let that fool you, as it possesses virtually the same properties following conversion within the body.

    Let’s examine how carnitine can help you achieve more in the gym.

    Carnitine Stimulates The Synthesis Of Androgen Receptors

    Prior to the discovery of carnitine stimulating the production of more androgen receptors, this was a fantasy only imagined in the minds of researchers and athletes alike. Yes, carnitine if one of the very few things that can bring about an increase in the number of androgen receptors found in the male body, as well as “upregulating” them, or making more sensitive to the effects of androgens[i].

    But why is this important? Because it is considered the rate limiting step on how fast you can build muscle. A good analogy to put this into perspective would be to consider testosterone as “passengers” at a bus terminal, and the buses as “androgen receptors”.

    There is a limited number of buses/seats, which means that only so many people can be accommodated at once. Increase the number of buses (receptors), and in turn more passengers can board and get to where they need to be (the testosterone).

    Thus, carnitine is one of the few things that can yield greater results than that obtained from increasing testosterone levels only. As a result, greater muscle synthesis occurred, and better preservation of lean muscle tissue while dieting or trying to reduce body fat.

    The Fat Transporter

    No, we aren’t talking about that legendary movie series starring Jason Statham, but actually one of carnitine’s primary roles; a carrier, so to speak.

    Carnitine (in its L form) is obtained via diet, and is particularly abundant in red meat, where it helps transport fat across cell membranes and into the mitochondria; essentially the furnace of a muscle cell to be utilized for fuel. You will have an exceedingly difficult time making use of fat if you are deficient in this amino, such as is common if you are a vegan.

    While its ability to enhance fat transport into the mitochondria occurs all day long, you can reap the greatest benefit at the post-workout interval, enhancing the utilization of this energy reserve over glycogen, which speeds up the process of body recomposition.

    A study conducted by the University of Nottingham investigated the administration of 2 g of carnitine first thing in the morning with 80 g high glycaemic carbohydrate, and followed up four hours later for a total of 24 weeks. The other group consumed the carb only.

    The results? During low intensity cycling the group given carnitine reduces the usage of glycogen by 55 percent, and enhanced the usage of fat by the same amount[ii]. This is exciting news for anyone needing to get rid of fat preferentially while holding on to precious muscle glycogen stores[iii].

    Fatigue Mitigation

    In order to pull off successful weight loss, a multifaceted approach works best. This almost certainly involves calorie restriction, which is a beast in its own right. This is because along with the reduction in calories comes the dreaded low energy phenomenon, coupled with fatigue.

    This is especially evident if you rely primarily on carbohydrates for fuel, as a sudden sharp reduction in its supply will cause energy levels to plummet, and performance to suffer.

    Carnitine can help mitigate this to an extent. By helping to enhance the utilization of fat, a greater amount of ketone bodies are produced to help deal with the carbohydrate crash. This, plus the fact that the glycogen stores in muscles aren’t as rapidly depleted can help explain how a little carnitine can go a far way.

    The exact Nottingham study also observed that the subject using carnitine were able to cycle an average of 25 percent longer than those not given carnitine, as well as finding out that lactic acid levels were lower, and muscle Creatine levels higher.

    Fatigue reduction was also evident in other aspects of life, and also benefited that leading to erectile dysfunction in older men[iv].

    Enhanced Recovery And Milder DOMS

    DOMS- better known as delayed onset muscle soreness, is that pesky all-over muscle specific ache that makes you just want to lay in bed all day and do nothing, but it doesn’t need to be that way. Given, for many it indicates that muscle damage galore has ensue, with subsequent rebuilding of stronger, and larger muscles.

    But spending days in pain for the gain? There must be a better way. And carnitine can do just that. Small doses- as little as 1000 mg daily, can help to significantly reduce muscle pain and associated indicators of damage[v], allowing for rapid recovery and return to form. These findings have been confirmed in human subjects, making its utilization an exciting one.

    This, and the fact that carnitine helps enhance production of nitric oxide[vi] and prevents its breakdown means that improved blood flow likely goes a long way in clearing metabolic by-products and delivering nutrients to support an ideal anabolic environment.

    In Summary

    Carnitine, whether in its L-Tartrate, or L-Acetyl form will deliver roughly equivalent actions mentioned above, although the acetyl version is often preferred as a nootropic agent. The important thing, is to shoot for at least 1 g of either, best when taken after your workout or with food.

    The varied uses of carnitine make it stand out in a sea of supplements looking to be the next big thing, as it is truly a powerhouse for your health and physique goals.

    [i] Kraemer WJ, Spiering BA, Volek JS, et al. Androgenic responses to resistance exercise: effects of feeding

    and L-carnitine. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Jul;38(7):1288-96. Erratum in: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Oct;38(10):1861. PubMed PMID: 16826026.

    [ii] Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2011;589(Pt 4):963–973. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.201343

    [iii] Natali, Andrea et al.Effects of acute hypercarnitinemia during increased fatty substrate oxidation in man

    Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental, Volume 42, Issue 5, 594 - 600

    [iv] Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, Modenini F, Biagiotti G. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6. PubMed PMID: 15072869.

    [v] Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Rubin MR, Gómez AL, Ratamess NA, Gaynor P. L-CarnitineL-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercisestress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;282(2):E474-82. PubMed PMID:11788381.

    [vi] Bloomer RJ, Tschume LC, Smith WA. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine modulates lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in human subjects. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 May;79(3):131-41. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831.79.3.131. PubMed PMID: 20209464.

  • Why You Should be Taking Dextrose Post-Workout

    15As an avid disciple of the iron, you probably go the extra mile to ensure that your diet is spot on (right?). Or maybe even if you have the occasional cheat meal turned-cheat-day, there is probably one cardinal sin that you would never commit- consuming high glycaemic carbs.

    But what if you found out that dextrose; made from corn and chemically identically to glucose, could turn your post-workout protocol on its head, and in the process, enhance your recovery?

    You’d be very likely to take advantage of it, we’re sure, why is why in this article we’ll be addressing why you should be adding dextrose to your post-workout shake.

    Why Dextrose Is Important

    Under normal circumstances, the body’s primary source of energy is glucose, which also happens to be fast digesting and absorbed. The body uses this energy source in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), otherwise known as your “energy currency”. But enough about what it does under normal circumstances. Time to see what is does when consumed post-workout.

    Dextrose Refuels Muscle

    Even though dextrose is essentially glucose, you may not have appreciated the fact that it does not necessarily stay elevated in the blood for hours on end. Rather, following consumption, the body immediately uses the free glucose it needs to meet its requirements, and subsequently proceeds to storing the extra as glycogen in muscle and liver cells.

    These muscle glycogen stores are paramount to exercise capacity[i]. During exercise, your muscles utilize these glycogen stores to liberate free glucose that in turn fuels your workout session. This is why it is critical to refuel with dextrose following your workout.

    Ensuring you restock muscle glycogen stores means that your next workout will not suffer because of impaired fuel tanks, and as a result you are rewarded with an enhanced capacity to lift before muscle failure ensues.

    Dextrose May Enhance Muscle Protein Synthesis

    Muscle protein synthesis (MPS), is the Holy Grail every bodybuilder or strength athlete is after. Essentially, this dictates whether you gain muscle over the long term, as an accrual of muscle mass occurs when the rate of protein synthesis exceeds that of protein breakdown.

    A study published in The American journal of physiology, regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology in 2010[ii] sought to investigate if the consumption of 20 g essential amino acids (EAAs) and either 30 g or 100 g dextrose would enhance protein synthesis.

    The findings confirmed that there was a significant increase in post-workout protein synthesis for both groups, along with a small degree of impaired muscle protein breakdown.

    It is also important to note that the combination was administered within 1 hour post workout to take advantage of the greatest rate of protein and glycogen synthesis during this time period.

    Dextrose Can Assist With Muscle Sparing

    Know what’s worse than keeping the muscle status quo? Losing muscle. But this is what inevitably occurs following intense exercise, and which is exacerbated if proper post workout nutrition is not employed.

    To confirm the fact that dextrose helped with protein sparing, a study was conducted which administered glucose at a rate of 0.88 g/ kg/hr, to adults using a treadmill over the course of 3+ hours.

    The findings confirmed that glucose impaired the rate of protein breakdown and nitrogen excretion[iii], both indicators of muscle loss and not conducive to athletic endeavours.

    Dextrose Stimulates Insulin Secretion

    It’s no secret that consuming carbohydrates of any sort elicits an insulin response, but the sheer speed of dextrose’s absorption sets it apart. During the post-workout period, timing is everything.

    Insulin is a highly anabolic hormone, and one that is rightfully referred to as a storage hormone. This is because many of its actions relate to storing nutrients- primarily carbohydrates, in suitable cellular space.

    Following your workout, nutrients, namely glucose and amino acids, are preferentially shuttled into hungry muscle cells to initiate recovery, as opposed to the liver or fat cells, two other sites insulin also sends nutrients to.

    Insulin also shuts down catabolic processes at this time, bringing protein degradation to a crawl and reducing energy expenditure.

    This is why adding dextrose to your post workout protein shake works so well. Not only is a greater magnitude of insulin secretion[iv] achieved, but also a faster onset of action and longer duration of activity.

    How Much Dextrose?

    While it may seem common sense to assume that a larger amount of dextrose consumed post workout would yield superior results, this is not necessarily true. In fact, unless you are a competitive super endurance athlete, the need for a massive amount of dextrose is not advised.

    Studies have been done comparing the consumption of amount between 30-100 g at the post interval window, and there are really no significant differences observed. Thus, it may serve you best (depending on your physique goals) to limit the consumption at this time to 30-60 g.

    Stacked with a protein powder, a ratio of 1.5-2:1 (dextrose to protein) works well, and is enough to not cause a significant calorie burden.

    In Summary

    Dextrose is cheap, sweet, and highly effective. There aren’t many post-workout supplements that deliver such a bang for your buck, and yet, it is often overlooked altogether.

    The next time you work out, add some dextrose to your post workout protein shake for a sure way to enhance your muscle gain and take performance to the next level.


    [i] W J Evans, V A Hughes, Dietary carbohydrates and endurance exercise, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 41, Issue 5, May 1985, Pages 1146–1154,

    [ii] Glynn EL, Fry CS, Drummond MJ, et al. Muscle protein breakdown has a minor role in the protein anabolic response to essential amino acid and carbohydrate intake following resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299(2):R533–R540. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00077.2010

    [iii] Millward, D.J., Davies, C.T., Halliday, D., Wolman, S.L., Matthews, D., & Rennie, M.C. (1982). Effect of exercise on protein metabolism in humans as explored with stable isotopes. Federation proceedings, 41 10, 2686-91 .

    [iv] Komatsu M, Takei M, Ishii H, Sato Y. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: A newer perspective. J Diabetes Investig. 2013;4(6):511–516. doi:10.1111/jdi.12094

  • L-Leucine: 5 Reasons You Need this Amino ASAP

    As a strength or fitness athlete, we don’t need to preach the importance of consuming enough protein to you, right? Chances are you’ve heard it many times before- without adequate protein consumption, you are likely to have a hard time getting where you want to be.

    But it’s time to look a little deeper; into the constituents that make up proteins, the amino acids. Are they all created the same? Not at all. Amino acids can be classified as non-essential (the ones the body can make on its own), semi-essential (conditional need), or essential, the ones we must get from our diet.

    They are all important to varying degrees, but one small subcategory of three essential amino acids, known as the branched chain amino acids, or BCAAs, play an exceedingly important part in the muscle growth equation.

    And the one that stands above them all? That would be L-Leucine without a doubt. But what exactly makes L-Leucine the VIP? Read on below to find out.

    Enhances Energy

    The body’s primary source of energy during workouts is glucose (obtained from carbohydrate rich foods), but in the absence of this fuel, it needs to start looking elsewhere[i]. Fat is a viable alternative, as the production of ketone bodies is a decent substitute, but fat adaptation takes some time and generally requires a low carbohydrate diet to begin with.

    These mitigating factors aside, BCAAs, inclusive of leucine, are capable of converting to glutamine or alanine, which is subsequently converted into glucose via the process of gluconeogenesis. This process acts as an alternative means for glucose production in the absence of carbohydrate consumption, and is usually employed as a fail-safe for organs such as the brain which preferentially run on glucose.

    By making this alternative energy source available, you are likely to complete the workout you set out to accomplish, and not fail for lack of energy half way through.

    Increases Post-Workout Muscle Protein Synthesis

    The most attractive draw of L-Leucine would have to be its ability to enhance post-workout muscle recovery and kick-start protein synthesis, since this is the reason most of us hit the gym, right?

    L-Leucine helps accomplish this not only by taking advantage of the anabolic window following your workout, but also enhances the activity of two other muscle building pathways, mTOR[ii] and AKT by 49% and 98% respectively, in studies conducted on rodents.

    Humans also possess these muscle building pathways, and the supplementation of L-Leucine seems to corroborate this finding. There also appears to be a point beyond which not much benefit is obtained from leucine supplementation, but which when achieved helps to “trip” the switch on muscle protein synthesis.

    Reduces Protein Degradation

    Protein degradation, also known as protein breakdown or catabolism, is an unavoidable consequence of weight training. In the process, BCAA stores in muscles are rapidly depleted, fostering an environment that is not in the best interest of muscle gain.

    Muscle breakdown is inevitable during intense training, and is the necessary stimulus that sets the stage for rebuilding of larger, stronger muscle fibres, but only if you arrest it with timely nutrition. L-Leucine, taken along with the other BCAAs prior to, after and even during your workout can effectively flip the script and ensure optimal recovery and a switch to anabolism.

    Reduces DOMS

    Have you been hit by a bad case of DOMS? DOMS, better known as delayed onset muscle soreness, is that too familiar session of pain that kicks in a day or two after you’ve had an intense workout. While not technically bad, as it gives fair indication that you had subjected your muscles to sufficient workload, it leaves you in more discomfort that you should have to bear.

    L-Leucine, it turns out, may offer solace by helping to blunt the amount of pain experienced during this interval. This effect has much to thank owing to its ability to reduce muscle breakdown[iii], which coincides with the extent of muscle damage incurred during training.

    Levels of creatine kinase- associated with muscle damage, are also lower when L-Leucine is supplemented, according to findings published[iv] in The Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in 2012.

    Leucine Is Highly Anabolic

    When most people hear the word “anabolic”, thoughts immediately race through their minds about testosterone and other related steroidal compounds. But how about another hormone, that isn’t a steroid, but instead a peptide?

    We’re talking about insulin, one of the body’s most potent anabolic hormones that can help you add pounds of muscle to your frame if utilized the correct way. Given, insulin can also make you very fat since it is primarily a storage hormone.

    In order to take advantage of its staggering muscle building capacity, it is best put to use at the peri-workout window. This included both pre and during your workout, plus afterwards- the time it shines the most.

    L-Leucine is a strong insulin stimulating agent[v], capable of triggering its release once present in the blood. Whey protein contains a high amount of leucine as well, but to get the maximum benefit from it at the post-workout interval, opt for a straight leucine or BCAA product, as its absorption is much faster than whey.

    This will help ensure that muscles preferentially become saturated with these aminos following your workout, while the cavalry; dextrose and whey, are on the way.

    In Summary

    While L-Leucine is found in many protein rich foods and powders, when you are trying to maximize protein synthesis following your workout, you need to either use a BCAA or dedicates L-Leucine supplement for maximum speed of absorption. Try to shoot for 2.5g at this interval (and a total of 10g over the course of the day, split into 4 servings) for a great way to end your workout and begin the process of muscle growth.

    [i] Duan, Y., Li, F., Li, Y. et al. Amino Acids (2016) 48: 41.

    [ii] Anthony JC, Yoshizawa F, Anthony TG, Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR.Leucine stimulates translation initiation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. J Nutr. 2000 Oct;130(10):2413-9. PubMed PMID: 11015466

    [iii] Shimomura Y, Murakami T, Nakai N, Nagasaki M, Harris RA. Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise. J Nutr. 2004 Jun;134(6 Suppl):1583S-1587S. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.6.1583S.Review. PubMed PMID: 15173434.

    [iv] Howatson G, Hoad M, Goodall S, Tallent J, Bell PG, French DN. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012;9:20. Published 2012 Jul 12. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-9-20

    [v] Yang J, Chi Y, Burkhardt BR, Guan Y, Wolf BA. Leucine metabolism in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Nutr Rev. 2010;68(5):270–279. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00282.x

  • Must Have Natural Testosterone Boosters Men Rave About

    If you have been working out for a number of years, and are probably in your late twenties, thirties or beyond, you’ve probably noticed that you don’t get quite the bang for your buck that you used to.

    Is this a result of your subpar workout routine and diet? It could be. But if you’re sure that you’ve checked all the boxes and doing what you should, then there’s a good chance that your testosterone levels have taken a hit.

    Is this something that you should lose sleep over? Well yes, and no. Yes in the sense that you should not let your precious muscle building hormone free-fall until things become so bad that you lose the essence of what makes you a man, but no as well, since it is inevitable for every man after the age of 30, and because you can take steps to arrest a sharp decline.

    One of the best ways to support your testosterone levels? Using all natural test boosters, such as those we will be discussing now.


    A supplement you may have heard making waves in recent months but may not have been aware of, Laxogenin is actually a compound known as a brassinosteroids, a plant based steroid found naturally in foods such as mustard, broccoli and even cabbage.

    Now hold on a second. Just because there’s the word “steroid” in something, that doesn’t mean it’s bad. This is especially true in the case of Laxogenin. While it is a steroid, it does not exhibit typical steroid-like effects in humans.

    This means that it actually does not alter androgen levels, but rather modifies the rate of protein synthesis and breakdown, known as an anabolic effect[i]. Thus, if muscle gain/preservation is your primary goal for seeking out a “testosterone booster” (which ironically, this is not), Laxogenin is an excellent choice.

    It also assists with cortisol modulation, which can contribute to improved testosterone levels. Cortisol and testosterone have a negatively inverse relationship, which means as one goes down, the other goes up.


    Adaptogens have been around for centuries, having a history of use in Ayurveda and the Orient, even though their utility has been underrated for years by conventional medicine. Turns out, using adaptogens could be one of the best steps you take to improve natural testosterone levels, and without risking hormonal dysfunction.

    Adaptogens, by name and nature, help your body to “adapt” to the stresses placed on it, by reducing cortisol production. Cortisol, while critical to our survival, is often chronically elevated and as a result lead to a slew of pro-inflammatory states.

    Good adaptogens include Ashwagandha (KSM-66), which has been studies extensively and has shown to enhance parameters such as spermatogenesis, usually impaired under high-stress conditions. It positively influenced fertility and hormone levels in men deemed as infertile[ii].

    Others, such as ginseng, ginkgo, Rhodiola and even turmeric are very helpful in supporting healthy testosterone levels.

    D-Aspartic Acid

    One of the most exciting developments over the past decade and a half has undoubtedly been D-Aspartic acid, which is a mainstay of testosterone boosting supplements everywhere thanks to its measurable benefits on serum levels of this hormone.

    But it isn’t just hype, as there have been studies done which confirm its potential in improving levels of this precious androgen. One such study published in the Journal of Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology reported average increases of 42% in the majority of men (20 out of 23) that were given D-Aspartic acid, and over the course of just 12 days[iii].

    This effect persisted even after the supplement had been discontinued. Yet another study even indicated its great promise in enhancing male fertility, as during the study 27% of participants’ partners got pregnant![iv]

    It is, however, important to note that men who reap the greatest benefit from D-Aspartic Acid supplementation have lower testosterone levels, so it may not be the best choice for younger mean with peak natural hormone production.


    Not some fancy exotic supplement, but rather one that is essential to your health and overall progress when it comes to athletic success. ZMA- zinc monomethionine/asparate with magnesium aspartate and vitamin B6, is a specially bonded compound known as a chelate, which can help with optimizing your natural testosterone levels.

    Besides supplying two of the most common minerals endless men are deficient in (you lose zinc from sweating and every time you ejaculate, for example), there is ample evidence that ZMA possesses anabolic properties that are favourable to accrual of lean mass.

    A study published by the Journal of Exercise Physiology revealed that athletes who supplemented with ZMA experienced an average 30% increase in testosterone levels, as well as 5% in IGF-1 levels, while a placebo group experienced decreases in both[v].

    Couple that with the fact that ZMA can contribute to improved sleep, (and likely increase in HGH as well), and you can see just how useful it can be to any training regimen.


    One of the earliest, and most well-known testosterone boosting supplements on the planet, tribulus is called many things, including devil’s weed and puncture vine. It actually grows wild in many parts of the world, and even though you could probably get some in your backyard, it is important to realize that not all tribulus is the same.

    Rather, you should be looking for high quality tribulus grown in Bulgaria or adjacent locations, containing at a minimum 6% protodioscin content and supplying more than 45% saponins. Why? Because tribulus appears to have a dose specific action.

    If you under dose (as many people do), you will probably fail to see any change and simply shrug it off as useless. However, its ability to increase testosterone levels and also display pro-erectile properties is undisputed, thanks to its ability to influence luteinizing hormone levels.

    Better known as LH, this hormone in turn dictates testosterone synthesis, which frequently show acute increases in the days following administration[vi].

    Tribulus’ action does not appear to be universal, again, but rather most beneficial in men who are older or have lower androgen levels to begin with. Younger men with the highest natural levels are unlikely to experience the same magnitude of effect.

    In Summary

    Testosterone decline in an inevitable part of growing older, but one that does not necessarily need to take the vitality out of you. Start at your bases; ensure you supplement with ZMA, and then add Laxogenin, tribulus and adaptogens to the mix as jet fuel.

    D-Aspartic Acid is also extremely promising for helping you bust out of a rut, and proves that age isn’t nothing but a number.

    [i] Esposito D, Komarnytsky S, Shapses S, Raskin I. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid. FASEB J. 2011;25(10):3708–3719. doi:10.1096/fj.11-181271

    [ii] Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males.Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem et al.Fertility and Sterility, Volume 94, Issue 3, 989 - 996

    [iii] Topo E, Soricelli A, D'Aniello A, Ronsini S, D'Aniello G. The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:120. Published 2009 Oct 27. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-7-120

    [iv] G. D’Aniello, S. Ronsini, T. Notari, N. Grieco, V. Infante, N. D’Angel, F. Mascia, M. Fiore, G. Fisher and A. D’Aniello, "D-Aspartate, a Key Element for the Improvement of Sperm Quality," Advances in Sexual Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 45-53. doi: 10.4236/asm.2012.24008.

    [v] L.R. BRILLA AND VICTOR CONTE. Effects of a Novel Zinc-Magnesium Formulation on Hormones and Strength. JEPonline, 3(4): 26-36, 2000

    [vi] Mohamed Farid Roaiah, Yasser Ibrahim El Khayat, Sameh Fayek GamalEl Din & Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Salam (2016) Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM), Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 42:4, 297-301, DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2015.1033579

  • 3 Supplement Ingredients for Women's Health

    When you visit a local supplement store, it can be hard to imagine that the majority of products are based for anyone but men. From muscle building mass gainers to extreme pre-workouts, is there a market for women's health supplements?


    The answer is, 'Of course.' Although the marketing is heavy towards the guys, women's health is a primary concern for many supplement brands. Several companies have taken the all-natural approach to supporting a woman's health, promoting the use of oils or herbal remedies that have been proven by science. Let's take a look at the 3 supplement ingredients that are ideal to support a woman's health.


    1. Cinnamon

    While it may seem strange, cinnamon is an excellent way to support your health. In particular, using the bark of cinnamon has been shown to contain a variety of important nutrients that effectively support a woman's health.


    Cinnamon has been shown to alleviate symptoms that are associated with the premenstrual period including bloating, odd cold spells, and indigestion. (1)


    While you could place the cinnamon bark in your water, the easiest way to capture the benefits of cinnamon is to take cinnamon bark extract in a natural supplement form. Click here to buy an elite quality cinnamon bark supplement.


    1. Maca Extract

    Maca is a Peruvian ingredient that has been used for thousands of years as a remedy for overall well-being. In particular, it was used by men to boost libido. These same benefits have transcended time and science is now showing just how useful this ingredient can be for your health.


    First, maca supports hormone health. For example, it is present in many testosterone boosters and estrogen balance supplements.


    When it comes to women's health, maca may be of great use to alleviate the fatigue and psychological symptoms associated with PMS. It may help to restore energy including libido for both men and women. (2)


    Click here to buy maca extract.


    1. Primrose Oil

    This last ingredient that is great for a woman's health is primrose oil. This healthy oil contains a high level of fatty acids. In particular, primrose oil contains a significant amount of gamma-linolenic acid, or GLA. It is from these fatty acids that primrose oil gets its benefits.


    Studies suggest that using primrose oil may help to alleviate the worst symptoms from PMS. Studies and user reports claim that women were able to alleviate or eliminate headaches, breast pain, body aches, irritability, water retention, and acne.


    Looking for a high-quality primrose oil? Click here to buy primrose oil.



    Although it can be intimidating to buy supplements, there is something out there for everyone. When it comes to women's health, three of the most beneficial ingredients are cinnamon bark, maca root, and primrose oil. Adding these to your daily program may help to improve health and reduce symptoms associated with PMS.



    1. Kort DH, Lobo RA. Preliminary evidence that cinnamon improves menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Nov;211(5):487.e1-6.
    1. Schäfer L, Kragballe K. Supplementation with evening primrose oil in atopic dermatitis: effect on fatty acids in neutrophils and epidermis. Lipids. 1991 Jul;26(7):557-60.
    1. Gustavo F. Gonzales. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 193496.
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