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General Health & Fitness

  • All Carbs are not the Same For Gains

    Do you feel stuck in a rut? Like no matter how hard you train, or how much protein you eat that you’re just not getting what you think you deserve from working out? If you feel this way, then there’s the very high likelihood that it’s not your workout that’s the problem; it’s probably your diet.

    But not just any random part of your workout; specifically your carbohydrate intake.

    At this point you’re probably thinking “but wait won't eating more carbs make me fat?”, and a plausible question it is.

    Yes, while carbohydrates can contribute to you accumulating excessive fat, there is no question to the efficacy of consuming carbohydrates for muscle gain or performance enhancement.

    A nutritional plan without smart carb intake is like pouring the wrong fuel (such as kerosene instead of gasoline) into your car and expecting it to get you the same place at the same time, or even there at all!

    But how can you exploit carbs for their immense benefits while also simultaneously minimizing their not so desirable effects? Turns out a lot of this comes down to timing.

    A Solid Carbohydrate Strategy

    While solid food should form the nutritional base for sustainable performance improvement and muscle gain, supplements exist to solve two problems; a diet that can benefit from a boost, and speed. We will be looking at carb supplementation from the speed perspective, since you should be capable of devising an effective diet plan before you throw your weight behind supplements.

    Most carbohydrate supplements you can buy fall into the fast absorbing category, which make them ideal for use at the peri-workout interval, though there are lesser known options which we will mention in this article as well.

    Aren’t All Carbs The Same?

    No. while all carbohydrates may ultimately breakdown into a simpler form (most often glucose), they vary significantly in how fast this happens and how efficient this is. The aim of most carb supplements is to get nutrients in your blood as fast as possible, a feat not easily accomplished by solid food. The most popular carb supplements available on the market today include the following:


    Dextrose is the most popular carbohydrate in the world, and the one which is the best representation of the glucose our body uses. Dextrose is actually D-glucose, one of two naturally occurring isomeric forms of glucose (the other being L-glucose) and also the most dominant of the two.

    It is a simple carbohydrate and boasts the advantage of affordability and rapid onset of action. Dextrose can have an impact on blood glucose levels in as little as two minutes and is almost fully absorbed by the ten minute mark.

    This speed of absorption makes it useful when timing matters, such as immediately after your workout[i] and upon waking in the morning.

    It is not best in class for use throughout the day as it results in very acute and short lived spikes to insulin[ii] and blood sugar that may contribute to fat storage.


    There is a degree of confusion that surrounds maltodextrin, much of which stems from the fact that it is classified as a polysaccharide. How does confusion stem from this exactly? Simple; because it doesn’t act like a polysaccharide.

    Polysaccharides, being complex carbohydrates, theoretically take much longer to breakdown, have a lower glycaemic index (GI), and make better options for use during the day when speed isn’t urgent. But not maltodextrin.

    It is atypical because it acts like a simple sugar- rapidly absorbed and able to raise blood glucose levels in a pinch. It may even do so to an extent equal to or greater than dextrose itself, which makes it good as a pre and post-workout carb, and less of an all-day choice. It may also help prevent degradation of performance during your workout when combined with glutamine[iii].

    Many weight gainers have maltodextrin as one of their primary carbohydrate sources, but it is not ideal owing to the rapid absorption and clearance from blood.

    Waxy Maize

    Waxy maize is surprisingly unknown to many athletes, being considered a higher quality carb than the other two for usage throughout the day. While the aforementioned two carbs have GI values of 100 and 85-110 respectively, that of waxy maize is much lower- coming in at just 63.

    What this means is that it does not cause that massive blood glucose or insulin spike the other two are known for, making it an excellent choice for slow sustained energy release[iv].

    Waxy maize is a much better inclusion in weight gain products as it does what you need such a product to do; slowly liberate carbohydrates to keep you in an anabolic state. As you may have guessed, however, it comes at a steeper cost.


    A patent pending designer carbohydrate[v], in terms of sheer performance this is the top of the food chain. It is a modified carbohydrate that is more rapidly absorbed than dextrose or maltodextrin, from within the stomach directly. This means no intestinal issues.

    It also has the property of sustaining energy for up to two hours making it great as a pre-workout carb source. It isn’t that popular as yet owing to the patent pending nature of the formulation.

    In Summary

    Hate them or love them, carbs are here to stay. If you want to get a leg up on the competition or just improve your own performance or muscle gain, well timed carbs are essential to your goal.

    Be sure to choose the best option wisely; use speed when you need it and opt for slower digesting sources throughout the day with solid food as your base.

    [i] Millward, D.J., Davies, C.T., Halliday, D., Wolman, S.L., Matthews, D., & Rennie, M.C. (1982). Effect of exercise on protein metabolism in humans as explored with stable isotopes. Federation proceedings, 41 10, 2686-91 .

    [ii] Komatsu M, Takei M, Ishii H, Sato Y. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: A newer perspective. J Diabetes Investig. 2013;4(6):511–516. doi:10.1111/jdi.12094

    [iii] Nakhostin-Roohi B. Effect of Glutamine and Maltodextrin Acute Supplementation on Anaerobic Power, Asian J Sports Med. Online ahead of Print ; 4(2):34495. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.34495.

    [iv] Sands AL, Leidy HJ, Hamaker BR, Maguire P, Campbell WW. Consumption of the slow-digesting waxy maize starch leads to blunted plasma glucose and insulin response but does not influence energy expenditure or appetite in humans. Nutr Res. 2009;29(6):383-390. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2009.05.009

    [v] Jeff Golini, Ian C. Clift, Muhammad M. Qureshi, Wendy L. Jones. A Designer Sugar, Karbolyn®, Leads to Tighter Sugar Control than Glucose in a Pre-Diabetic Cohort

  • The Post Quarantine Gym Return: Safeguard Your Health with these Essentials

    As of today’s date (June 2020), the COVID-19 pandemic is slowly abating. Countries and locales are gradually opening back up, performing a delicate balancing act between public health and local economies.

    One place you are probably eagerly anticipating returning to is your local gym, but not no fast soldier. Before thinking about setting foot into a gym again, you need to ensure that you have your ducks in a row. The pandemic is NOT over by a long haul, even though things may be looking better in the short term.

    So what should you do? Continue to atrophy from lack of physical activity? Not necessarily. But you can safeguard yourself and others around you by acting smart. Well timed supplements and other essentials can mean the difference between life returning to normal in a jiffy, or having to endure restrictions for many more months to come.

    Consider these your post-quarantine essential list. Don’t risk your health without them.

    Face Masks

    Not surprisingly, many gyms that are opened or in the process of opening over the next week or two are making it mandatory for you to don the accessory that had defined the year 2020; your friend in safety, a mask.

    We previously discussed the merits of the different types of masks, and owing to the fact that the pandemic is not fully over, and because there may still be many asymptomatic people in the gym at any one time, you should still opt for the one that provides maximum protection- the KN95/N95/P2.

    Other options include surgical masks and cloth masks, although their protection lies on a sliding scale. Wearing a mask, however, does pose its fair share of challenges, with the major one being difficulty breathing during heavy perceived exertion. For this reason, be sure to take sufficient rest periods and ease up on the gas until you are comfortable with breathing.

    Vitamin C

    If you had difficulty in finding vitamin C supplements for purchase over the last two months, you probably understand why. Although it does not definitely prevent any illness, it does possess real benefits for your immune system.

    For instance, it reduces inflammation[i], which if left unchecked, has a negative effect on immune cells. Likewise, it can help you recover from symptoms of a cold faster[ii] , so you won’t be shunned if you do happen to sniffle in the gym.

    Try to shoot for about 1000mg daily. This is definitely one of your primary tools when starting to hit the gym again.


    Zinc has been an athlete’s friend for a long time now. Apart from raising your testosterone levels though, it also has a noticeable part to play in your immunity. For one, it contributes to the development of immune cells[iii].

    Plus, zinc can actually help reduce your risk of picking up infections and stimulating a stronger immune response, especially in the susceptible older population[iv].

    Vitamin D

    Even if you live in the desert, drenched in blazing hot sun, you might still be deficient in vitamin D. not to mention that it is unsafe to spend excessive amounts of time in the sun daily. Using a vitamin D supplement is a much smarted option.

    People with lowest levels of vitamin D show correlation with higher risk of pathogenic infections, as vitamin D is associated with enhancing the function of several immune cell types[v].

    Hand Sanitiser

    Without needing to say it, you are probably aware that hand sanitiser is now an essential in your bags, pockets, and everywhere else. In the gym, this is going to be much more important. In a confined space where multiple people will be handling the same equipment and weights, you need to ensure that you sterilize both before and after use.

    To effectively deactivate the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, the hand sanitiser product you use should contain at a minimum 62% ethanol[vi], which, over the course of one minute can offer you great protection.

    Other Essentials

    Supplements such as Echinacea, elderberry, Astragalus and garlic can also play a supporting role in helping to support immune health, but are not absolutely essential at this time. If you are cleared to use them (be sure to ask your Doctor or Pharmacist first), then by all means go head.

    And Finally

    The gym itself should have several protocols in place for your protection. This includes installation of more sinks and washing areas, sanitising sprays between workstations, and capacity restrictions.

    We also urge you to not “socialize” too much, and if possible train without a spotter in the interim. The pandemic will not last, but a lot depends on how well we work to break the chain of transmission.

    [i] Rogovskii V. S. (2017). The Linkage Between Inflammation and Immune Tolerance: Interfering with Inflammation in Cancer. Current cancer drug targets, 17(4), 325–332. https://doi.org/10.2174/1568009617666170109110816

    [ii] Hemilä H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(1):CD000980. Published 2013 Jan 31. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4

    [iii] Prasad AS. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Mol Med. 2008;14(5-6):353?357. doi:10.2119/2008-00033.Prasad

    [iv] Haase H, Rink L. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging. Immun Ageing. 2009;6:9. Published 2009 Jun 12. doi:10.1186/1742-4933-6-9

    [v] Di Rosa M, Malaguarnera M, Nicoletti F, Malaguarnera L. Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno-modulator. Immunology. 2011;134(2):123?139. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2011.03482.x

    [vi] Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect. 2020;104(3):246?251. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022

  • The Top 4 Reasons to Use Weight Gainers Exposed

    Without a doubt, the toughest part about building a world class physique is nutrition. Countless disciples of the iron invest their blood, sweat and tears, day after day in the gym- sometimes even much longer, and have little to show for all their efforts.

    What gives? Oftentimes, it boils down to diet, plain and simple. Living in the internet age, information overload is very real, with experts coming at you from every single angle imaginable. The remedy for this problem? Keeping it simple.

    50-75 years ago bodybuilding was in its infancy, and there wasn’t a contentious amount of information circulating. This is why going back to basics is so necessary, and effective. Know what the one thing is that can be considered the good old bread and butter of a world class physique?

    High quality calories, obtained from a weight gainer.

    Weight Gainers Vs Protein Shakes Vs Meal Replacement Shakes

    These three terms are sometimes used interchangeably (and incorrectly), since they can be considered fundamentally different.

    Protein shakes supply primarily lean protein of different varieties, such as whey, casein, soy and more. While extremely popular, they are not the best choice for helping you meet calorie requirements.

    Meal replacement, as the name implies, are usually substituted for whole meals, being better suited for weight loss than weight gain, although they often fail at this too. The premise behind them is that you are able to reduce calories consumed at any sitting with a controlled “liquid meal”, but since the body doesn’t readily experience the same degree of satiety from liquids as it does solid food[i], it is not uncommon to still eat in addition to having your meal replacement, leading to a bad outcome.

    Meal replacement shakes contain all 3 macronutrient groups, as well as accessory vitamins and minerals, but not necessarily in the proportion that supports your body goals.

    Weight gainers have come a long way from 2 decades ago. Back then, they consisted of high protein, but also staggering amounts of sugar and fat, which would definitely add mass to your frame, but no necessarily lean muscle.

    Most of the reputable brands available today use high quality slower digesting carbohydrates, are virtually devoid of fast acting sugars, utilize healthier fats and also include a range of protein powder types to allow for variable absorption speeds.

    They may also come with digestive enzymes to boost absorption, and can make it exponentially easier to add high quality muscle to your frame.

    With that in mind, here are the main reasons to use weight gainers to help you meet your muscle and strength goals.

    Timing Specific Variants Available

    It’s not news that your nutrient requirements change depending on the time of day, and you can be forgiven if you become overwhelmed with remembering when to take what. Weight gainers have evolved a lot, and continue to do so to meet the needs of high performance athletes everywhere.

    For instance, there are weight gainers designed for general daily usage which contain the cookie-cutter essentials, carbs, proteins and a touch of healthy fat; and then there are others that may be best suited for specific times of the day, such as those enhanced with Creatine and best suited for peri-workout nutrition.

    Differing Calorie Loads

    Can everyone benefit from a weight gainer? Absolutely. However, there is no one universal weight gainer that is best suited for everyone. For instance, if you ae classified as an endomorph, you likely have a propensity for storing fat easily, in such a case, you may not require one that contains an immense amount of carbohydrates, or opt for one that contains more fat and less carbs as a trade-off.

    Alternately, a hard gainer (ectomorph), burns through calories extremely fast, and can likely guzzle down a 1000 calories plus serving like water off a duck’s back.

    It is still important to bear in mind the fact that excessive calories beyond what is necessary to stimulate muscle growth will inevitably still lead to fat accumulation, regardless of if the product is marketed as a mass gainer or otherwise.

    Appetite Support

    Eating can be a chore when trying to gain weight, no doubt about that. This is even more difficult if you are traditionally a light eater, but are desperately trying to enhance your strength and musculature. In such a scenario, weight gainers are invaluable aides.

    Liquid calories do not stimulate our satiety pathways to the same extent as solid food does[ii], which means that for someone who finds it difficult to consume enough calories, you can easily meet your quota this way.

    Just be careful- if you already meet your caloric goals or come near to it, weight gainers can push you past your budget and spill over into fat gain.

    Accelerated Recuperation

    In order to hasten the process of recovery and recuperation, you need to ensure that sufficient building blocks are made available to muscles, especially during the post-workout interval. This means sufficient protein, and carbohydrates to replenish glycogen stores[iii].

    Weight gainers are second to none when it comes to overall protein density, and the inclusion of carbohydrates assist with insulin stimulation to further ensure shuttling of key nutrients into muscle cells at this time.

    Failure to consume enough calories at the post-workout window will slow down recovery as the body scampers for nutrition, and may inadvertently flag a state of scarce resources. Today, many weight gainers are also fortified with l-glutamine and l-leucine to support optimal recovery rates.

    How Much Weight Gainer Do I Need?

    The exact amount of weight gainer you need to consume daily varies based on your current bodyweight, athletic status, propensity to gain fat and of course, your goal. In general, one to two servings of weight gainer per day is usually sufficient to help you meet your caloric and macronutrient goals, but the key is to find one that supplies clean calories.

    This means limited sugar and relatively low fat content, but with moderate to high protein content. Strive for approximately 2 g of protein consumption per kg of bodyweight.

    In Summary

    Weight gainers, while indispensable in your quest for muscle, should not be used as a crutch for a poor diet. You cannot out-supplement bad habits if you’ve never fostered healthy eating habits, and are likely to burn a hole in your pocket trying to keep up.

    Weight gainers can make the difference in helping you see the gains you deserve, but like everything else in life, moderation and common sense is key.

    [i] Almiron-Roig, Eva & Chen, Y & Drewnowski, A. (2003). Liquid calories and the failure of satiety: How good is the evidence?. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 4. 201-12. 10.1046/j.1467-789X.2003.00112.x.

    [ii] Tieken SM, Leidy HJ, Stull AJ, Mattes RD, Schuster RA, Campbell WW. Effects of solid versus liquid meal-replacement products of similar energy content on hunger, satiety, and appetite-regulating hormones in older adults. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39(5):389–394. doi:10.1055/s-2007-976545

    [iii] Beck KL, Thomson JS, Swift RJ, von Hurst PR. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015;6:259–267. Published 2015 Aug 11. doi:10.2147/OAJSM.S33605

  • The Top 4 Stress Busters for Men Revealed

    Stress… seems like it’s everywhere we turn these days, right? In a way, this is absolutely true. Be that physical stress or psychological stress, there is no doubt that it takes a major toll on our well-being and health.

    Trying to make the most muscle gains possible? You’ll have an uphill battle if you have your plate full with stress. But don’t worry, help is in sight. There are effective ways you can take the reins on stress and regain control over this beast.


    A storied herb with evidence of therapeutic benefit dating back to the first century B.C, during the Han Dynasty. There are many different varieties of ginseng as well, including Korean (red) ginseng, American Ginseng, Indian ginseng and even Siberian ginseng (though not a true ginseng).

    Regardless of their diverse relationship, what links most of them together is their universal action on stress- more specifically, modulating the effects of high cortisol secretion of multiple body systems.

    For instance, while sexual dysfunction is not something that is openly discussed by men, quite a large number of (young) men experience issues in the bedroom, brought on by triggers related to high cortisol levels.

    Reviews of multiple studies yield mixed results, but overall draw a consensus that ginseng (Panax “Korean” ginseng in this case) improves sexual performance and virility in the majority of men that consume it.

    Among the positives drawn from the review of studies include improved erection quality[i], and beneficial effects of hormonal balance, evidenced by improved levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and a reduction in prolactin levels, a common culprit of hormone-induced ED.

    Another significant benefit is improved penile blood flow[ii], in a manner similar to the way prescription ED medication (such as Viagra) work, but without the negatives!


    Magnesium is not one of those “sexy” supplements that are heavily marketed to you but remains a mineral that is critical to your health and well-being. Ask yourself this question- are you honestly getting enough sleep?

    If you feel overwhelmed with stress, there is a high probability that you are also sleep deficient. Turns out stress feeds into more insomnia, while insomnia also worsens your stress burden. Thus, these two form a self-propagating cycle of ill health.

    Taking a magnesium supplement, as the elemental vitamin or ZMA- an ingenious chelated complex with zinc can help mitigate the harmful effects of insomnia before things get too serious.

    One of the main ways magnesium helps to combat stress is its ability to reduce the secretion of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)[iii]; a hormone that subsequently causes your adrenal glands to increase production of adrenalin (epinephrine) and cortisol, the original stress hormones.

    In addition to this, magnesium deficiency does increase one’s subjective feelings of anxiety and stress, which play into the hands of sleep deprivation. You can now probably understand why magnesium is referred to as the “original chill pill”.


    Another adaptogen that is extremely popular in ayurvedic medical texts, it is possibly one of the best cortisol modulating agents we have at our disposal. Unlike many other possible stress-reducing herbs that are shrouded in uncertainty, Ashwagandha actually has a great degree of promise, as it has been shown to have notable anxiety and stress-reducing properties[iv], even though it is necessary for more studies to be conducted.

    In addition to its ability to help you take the load off, it also has a mild action on increasing testosterone levels and power output[v]; both highly advantages for strength athletes.

    If there is one supplement you should be taking to get control of stress and anxiety, while supporting your athletic endeavours, it would have to be Ashwagandha by a longshot.

    St. John’s Wort

    St. Johns’ Wort is one herb that can help you in several ways, but most notably has an effect on reducing stress-induced anxiety, and has even been shown to be roughly as effective as prescription medication that assists with depression management[vi].

    In addition to these already significant benefits, St. John’s Wort may even help to bolster an aspect stress is often forgotten to affect- cognitive function[vii]. While only done on rodents, you probably know too well the effects of acute stress on your working memory, so it couldn’t hurt that there’s more promise in this miraculous herb yet.

    The Supporting Cast

    There is an entire world to adaptogens, meaning that we have basically only mentioned the most popular. There are others including MACA, horny goat weed and Astragalus to name a few, while others yet such as cacao (yes, chocolate!) and vitamin B-12 are things you may overlook.

    In Conclusion

    Stress, or more correctly, the stress hormone cortisol, is an integral part of our lives and is hard-wired into our DNA for survival. Given, we aren’t running away from dinosaurs much these days, but it is that same hormone coupled with neurotransmitters such as epinephrine which allow us to get things done under pressure.

    Don’t make stress rule your life- take the adaptogens we have referenced above, and ensure that you top up with magnesium if you feel your sleep quality dropping. That, and a holistic lifestyle that assists with stress management (meditation is extremely beneficial), and you’ll be back on your way making gains and smashing goals.

    [i] Kim TH, Jeon SH, Hahn EJ, et al. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl. 2009;11(3):356–361. doi:10.1038/aja.2008.32

    [ii] McKay, Douglas. (2004). Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: Examining the evidence. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. 9. 4-16.

    [iii] H. Murck (2002) Magnesium and Affective Disorders, Nutritional Neuroscience, 5:6, 375-389, DOI: 10.1080/1028415021000039194

    [iv] Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012;34(3):255–262. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.106022

    [v] Sandhu JS, Shah B, Shenoy S, Chauhan S, Lavekar GS, Padhi MM. Effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adults. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010;1(3):144–149. doi:10.4103/0974-7788.72485

    [vi] Qin Xiang Ng, Nandini Venkatanarayanan, Collin Yih Xian Ho,Clinical use of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) in depression: A meta-analysis,Journal of Affective Disorders,Volume 210,2017,Pages 211-221,ISSN 0165-0327,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.048.

    [vii] Trofimiuk E, Holownia A, Braszko JJ. St. John's wort may relieve negative

    effects of stress on spatial working memory by changing synaptic plasticity.

    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011 Apr;383(4):415-22. doi:


  • Nitric oxide supplements

    Nitric oxide (NO) supplements are very popular in the sports and bodybuilding community. The NO molecule has been found to play an important role in many functions in the human body including mitochondrial respiration (and hence energy metabolism), blood flow, vasodilation and implicated in my own research, neuronal functions and developments. Nitric oxide is synthesized via two physiological pathways, I won't bore you with the details, all you need to know here is that L-arginine acts as a main precursor of the first pathway whereas nitrate is the substrate used to produce NO by the second pathway. It was hypothesized that NO supplementation can enhance oxygen and nutrient delivery to active muscles and hence improve performance. Truth or myth, let's find out.

    L-arginine works on the first NO pathway and it has been proposed that taking L-arginine can increase NO levels and subsequently exercise performance. However, oral L-arginine supplementation has been found to unable to elevate NO levels in the test subjects and did not improve strength performance (Alveare et al 2012, Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism). Other studies further suggested that the supplementation of L-arginine had no effects on the hormone and NO levels in the body and had no effect on performance (da Silva et al 2014, Food and Nutrition Research; Zajac et al 2010, Journal of Strength and Conditioning). There are some contradicting reports showing L-arginine has a somewhat measurable effect on hormone levels and exercise performance. However, the general consensus of the scientific community is that there is a lack of concrete evidence to support the claim that oral L-arginine supplementation has a positive effect on NO levels in the body and exercise performance.

    Nitrate is converted into nitrite after ingestion and can be converted into nitric oxide when the body's oxygen availability is low. The supplementation of nitrate has been shown to lower oxygen demand during submaximal workout, and improves exercise efficiency (Larson et al 2007, Acta Physiologica). It was suggested by one study that nitrate should be consumed 2-3 hours prior to competition or training for maximum benefits (Jones et al 2012, Medicine and Sports Science).

    One of the common flaws of the studies involving NO supplements and exercise performance is that only young males were used as subjects. To my knowledge, the effects of NO supplements on exercise performance in older males or women have not been yet been explored as of today. The effect of oral L-arginine supplementation is debated and the outcome is not conclusive. The use of nitrate supplements has shown to improve exercise performance in some and may be used for their ergogenic potentials.

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