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  • The Ultimate Guide to Caffeine

    Caffeine is without a doubt the most widely used psychoactive compound on the planet.

    Billions of people use caffeine every day to wake themselves up in the morning, boost their mental acuity in the afternoon, or increase their exercise performance before training and competitions.

    But are those the only benefits of caffeine? And does it have any side effects?

    What is Caffeine?

    In short, caffeine is a compound found in plants that acts as a stimulant.

    With this in mind, most people obtain caffeine on a daily basis in coffee or tea. The two plants that produce coffee beans are “Coffea arabica” and “Coffea canephora”, while “Camellia sinensis” is the plant that produces tea leaves.

    As many of you would be aware, caffeine can also be found in supplement form, where it is consumed as a powder.

    How Does Caffeine Work?

    Most of us know that caffeine has some impact on mental wellbeing and cognitive performance -- but what many don't know is how it works.

    After you consume caffeine (whether it be in tea, coffee, or supplement form), it quickly enters your gut and digestive tract, before being rapidly absorbed into your bloodstream. From here, it is transported to your liver, before moving throughout your body in several different forms.

    After passing through the liver, caffeine can have an effect on a number of your organs -- but where it has the biggest impact is in your brain.

    Caffeine moves into the brain and starts attaching itself to certain receptors called “adenosine receptors”.

    Adenosine is a neurotransmitter that essentially acts to relax the brain, making you feel tired. Under normal circumstances, your adenosine levels slowly accumulate throughout the day, making you feel tired, thus facilitating your transition into sleep.

    However, when caffeine blocks these receptors, it stops adenosine from affecting your brain, increasing sensations of alertness.

    Moreover, once in the brain, caffeine also increases the levels of three key compounds that act in your brain and body, being adrenaline, dopamine, and norepinephrine. This further stimulates your brain, leading to increases in mental acuity, alertness, and focus.

    I should also note that these effects occur rapidly after consumption.

    In fact, caffeine will be in your bloodstream within about 20 minutes, and acting on the brain in full force within 60 -- which explains why your morning coffee is so good, so quickly.

    Caffeine Benefits

    We know that caffeine acts on the brain in a very potent manner -- and as a result, it can exert a number of different effects on your body.

    1.   Increased Mental Function

    It is well established that doses of caffeine as low as 50mg can increase mental alertness, leading to improvements in attention, reaction time, problem solving capability, short term memory, and judgement [1].

    Interestingly, these effects appear to be more pronounced in individuals who don't regularly drink caffeine, or in people who are sleep deprived.

    All of which suggests that caffeine can make an extremely potent stimulus if you are in need of a mental boost.

    2.   Improved Exercise Performance

    In conjunction with its potent effects on cognitive performance, there is a huge body of research clearly demonstrating that caffeine can have some seriously powerful effects on physical performance too.

    A recent review dove in and evaluated the findings of a whopping 21 meta-analyses (a study that combines the results of multiple studies) on caffeine and various measures of physical performance.

    And what did they conclude?

    That caffeine can cause significant improvements in strength, endurance, and power [2].

    Now if you are training to get as big and strong as humanly possible, this is important because it means taking caffeine can increase the amount of reps you can perform, or the amount of weight you can lift -- which over time, will lead to substantial improvements in strength and size.

    So, if you want to get jacked, caffeine could play a role.

    3.   Promotes Fat Loss

    One of the more interesting effects of caffeine are related to its potential impact on fat loss -- which is why it appears in practically every over the counter fat burner on the planet.

    Because caffeine is a stimulant, it has the capacity to increase metabolic rate (i.e. the amount of energy you burn to maintain your normal physiological processes). Within this,. It also helps mobilise fat for energy.

    In doing so, it can ultimately make it easier to lose fat [3].

    Now, the caveat here is that caffeine will not do it all for you. Fat loss is the result of maintaining a sustained energy deficit over a prolonged period of time -- however, it does appear that caffeine can make creating this deficit easier.

    4.   Prevents Parkinson's Disease and Dementia

    Our last benefit sits slightly outside the realm of exercise and training, but that does not make it any less impressive.

    Two of the most common issues to plague modern society is Alzheimer's disease and dementia. These issues result in notable age-related declines in cognitive function, leading to a loss of independence, and at times, an early death.

    However, there is evidence to suggest that those individuals who drink  between 3 and 5 cups of coffee per day during their middle years will reduce their risk of Alzeimers and dementia by approximately 65% in their older years [4].

    While there could be a number of reasons for this finding, it is believed that caffeine actually suppresses the production of a certain compound called “amyloid beta” -- which is believed to increase brain inflammation and contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease.

    Caffeine Dosing

    Now for the big question -- how much should you take?

    Well, most government health authorities across the globe agree that a daily intake of around 400mg is completely safe -- which generally equates to between 2 and 4 cups of coffee per day (depending on the size of the cup, of course).

    However, the recommendations for exercise performance are slightly different.

    In this scenario, guidelines suggest that you should take somewhere between 3 and 9mg of caffeine per kg of body weight approximately 60 minutes before you are set to commence training [5].

    For example, an 80kg individual would take between 240 and 720mg of caffeine to optimise performance.

    Now, the thing to note here is that the upper limit of this recommendation sits higher than what many government authorities would consider safe. As a result, opting for a dosage of somewhere between 200 and 400mg is going to be safe and effective for most individuals.

    With this in mind, if you are after a pre workout supplement that contains an effective dose of caffeine, it should sit within this range.

    Side Effects

    As most of you would be aware, caffeine is very well-tolerated when taken in amounts that align with the recommended guidelines. However, taking too much can result in some rather nasty side effects, including [6]:

    • Jitteriness and restlessness
    • Feelings of anxiety and nervousness
    • Becoming dizzy and losing balance
    • Diarrhea
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • The onset of muscle spasms

    While most of the side effects do only occur in higher doses, we would recommend talking to a medical professional before supplementing with anything greater than 200mg -- just to be on the safe side.

    Final Remarks

    Caffeine is one of the most effective performance boosting supplements on the planet. With the capacity to improve mental acuity, boost strength, power, and endurance, enhance fat loss, and stave off dementia, it really can do it all.

    Just make sure you stick within the recommended dosages to optimise the results.



    1. McLellan, Tom M., John A. Caldwell, and Harris R. Lieberman. "A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 71 (2016): 294-312.
    2. Grgic, Jozo, et al. "Wake up and smell the coffee: caffeine supplementation and exercise performance—an umbrella review of 21 published meta-analyses." British journal of sports medicine 54.11 (2020): 681-688.
    3. Tabrizi, Reza, et al. "The effects of caffeine intake on weight loss: a systematic review and dos-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 59.16 (2019): 2688-2696.
    4. Eskelinen, Marjo H., and Miia Kivipelto. "Caffeine as a protective factor in dementia and Alzheimer's disease." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 20.s1 (2010): S167-S174.
    5. Goldstein, Erica R., et al. "International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7.1 (2010): 1-15.
    6. Durrant, Karen L. "Known and hidden sources of caffeine in drug, food, and natural products." Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (1996) 42.4 (2002): 625-637.
  • 5 Amazing Health and Fitness Benefits of Caffeine

    It's in one of the most popular morning beverages.

    It's in a variety of fitness supplements.

    It can even be found in over-the-counter medications.


    Caffeine is everywhere.

    It's one of the most popular and widely used compounds in the entire world. In fact, there's a good chance that you started your day with it.


    What's so special about caffeine?

    Why is it so popular?


    Let's take a look at the top 5 amazing health and fitness benefits that caffeine can provide you.


    1. Disease Prevention

    The mind is a terrible thing to waste and as we age, our minds become more susceptible to degenerative disease such as Alzheimer's. Diseases of the brain rob people of who they are and while medical advancements have come a long way, there is something simple that you can do to protect yourself: drink more coffee.


    Studies show that consistent and moderate caffeine consumption plays an important role in protecting the mind from the onset of Alzheimer's disease. (1-2)


    1. Workout Recovery

    For anyone who has stepped into the weight room, you know only too well how it feels the next day when you wake up. That feeling of muscle soreness means you did a great job in the gym but now you have to heal up.


    Caffeine consumption, particularly coffee, has been shown to boost workout recovery and decrease the amount of soreness you feel. (3)


    1. Focus and Alertness

    Anyone who has ever tried a cup of coffee can attest to how quickly they feel more alert upon drinking it. What's the secret? Caffeine.


    An average cup of coffee will contain around 100 mg of caffeine. Some brands of coffee may contain less and some may contain a lot more. Studies have proven how effective caffeine is at boosting your alertness and focus but you don't need a study to prove that to be true. Try it for yourself. (4)


    1. Weight Loss

    Ever wonder why caffeine is present in so many weight loss supplements?


    First, caffeine is a proven thermogenic compound, which means that it directly promotes fat burning. It triggers the release of fatty acids into the blood stream to be used as a source of fuel.


    What's more, caffeine is a potent energy booster, which supports you during physical activities. Once you drink coffee, for example, you're more likely to get up, move about, and burn more calories. (5-6)


    1. Energy Booster

    Finally, we have caffeine's most popular benefit: energy.


    It's no wonder why so many people start their days off with a cup of coffee. Caffeine is one of the most popular ways to increase someone's energy levels. Couple this with the benefits of alertness and focus and caffeine is the perfect tool for work or school. (4, 6)



    Caffeine is an effective way to support overall health but it can also play an important role in your fitness goals.


    Caffeine can boost performance, increase intra-workout focus, and support recovery. If you aren't already, you need to add Caffeine to your workout supplement list.


    Why not make your own Caffeine-focused workout supplement with the Amino Z Supplement Builder?

    Add Caffeine to dozens of other ingredients that fit your goals. Try it today!



    1. Eskelinen MH, Kivipelto M. Caffeine as a protective factor in dementia and Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S167-74. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-1404.
    1. Daniel Borota, Elizabeth Murray, Gizem Keceli, Allen Chang, Joseph M Watabe, Maria Ly, John P Toscano, & Michael A Yassa. Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans. Nature Neuroscience 17, 201–203 (2014) doi:10.1038/nn.3623.
    1. Maridakis V, O'Connor PJ, Dudley GA, McCully KK. Caffeine attenuates delayed-onset muscle pain and force loss following eccentric exercise. J Pain. 2007 Mar;8(3):237-43. Epub 2006 Dec 11.
    1. Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 Nov;79(3):401-11.
    1. Acheson KJ, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Pittet P, Anantharaman K, Jéquier E. Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 May;33(5):989-97.
    1. Costill DL, Dalsky GP, Fink WJ. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports [1978, 10(3):155-158]
  • GAT PMP vs. GAT Nitraflex

    Pre-workout supplements can potentially be the difference between owning your workouts and never showing up. After a long and busy day, it can be tough to muster up the motivation to crank out an hour session at the gym. This is why pre-workouts have become so immensely popular. One of the biggest names in the industry, German American Technologies, has produced two incredible, tried and true pre-workout supplements: GAT PMP vs. GAT Nitraflex. Let's review these two products to see which is really worth having at home.



    Where can I buy it?

    • Here's where you can buy GAT PMP .


    Pros of GAT PMP

    GAT's Peak Muscle Performance (PMP) is the pre-workout that put the company on the map. It isn't just a shot of caffeine with some random vitamin complex; this is a multi-level pre-workout that will deliver the energy you're looking for.


    The team over at GAT has broken down what the supplement offers into four easy-to-understand categories:


    • Nitric Oxide Enhancers
    • Pump Accelerators
    • Focus & Cognition Modulators
    • Energetics


    The ingredients found in the first two categories, which include L-Citrulline Malate, Beta-Alanine, and Calcium Lactate may help to increase nitric oxide production in the body allowing for insane pumps, more strength, better recovery, and faster removal of lactic acid build-up.


    As for energy and intense focus, that's exactly what you'll be getting from the latter categories. Each serving hits you with 325 mg of caffeine. Mix that with N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine and L-Theanine and what you have is laser sharp focus and an unstoppable amount of energy.


    Working together, all of these ingredients are going to help you crush your workout and have plenty of energy leftover. (1-3)


    Cons of GAT PMP

    Outside of artificial sweeteners and flavouring, the only issue we had with GAT's PMP is the fact that you aren't sure exactly how much of each ingredient you are getting. You get the grams for each blend but that could mean one ingredient far outweighs the others. This is important as each of these ingredients dose have a recommended dose for maximum benefits but you'll never know if you're getting it.



    GAT Nitraflex

    Where can I buy it?

    • Here's where you can GAT Nitraflex.


    Pros of GAT Nitraflex

    GAT seems to be a fan of breaking down each ingredient into a quick category and Nitraflex is no exception. Nitraflex has three ingredient categories:


    • Vascoactive Arginase-Regulating NO Precursor Complex
    • Acute Energy, Focus, Intensity, Neuromodulating, Endurance Complex
    • Clinically-Studied Testosterone-Enhancing Complex


    Just like with PMP, Nitraflex offers you an N.O. boosting blend. The difference is that Nitraflex has the upper hand here. It offers you AAKG and L-Arginine, both of which are the top N.O. boosters in the industry.


    Moving on to energy and focus, Nitraflex is ready to deliver. It offers you a really intense blend of energy boosters, thermogenics, and nootropics including DMAE Bitrartrate, Theanine, and Rauwolscine. DMAE has been shown to be a powerful focus enhancer. Combine that with Rauwolscine, an energy booster related to Yohimbine, and caffeine are you're looking at an elite pre-workout supplement.


    Lastly, GAT threw in a Clinically-Studied Testosterone-Enhancing Complex featuring the ingredient Calcium fructopyranose borate, which may be able to support natural production of testosterone. (3-5)


    Cons of GAT Nitraflex

    Downsides to Nitraflex are twofold:


    First, with its testosterone support ingredient, the supplement is limiting its market to a male audience (Women use pre-workouts too, guys).


    Second, Nitraflex has a stimulant packed energy blend. For some, this will be exactly what the supplement guru ordered. For others who are not accustomed to using energy boosters, these stimulants can put a serious hurt on the body. You may want to assess your tolerance with half a serving then build up accordingly.


    Which One Should You Choose?

    Both of these pre-workouts are top notch. The difference really comes down to two things:


    Are you a woman? If so, you'll want to go with PMP as it's free of testosterone boosters.


    Do you have a high caffeine / stimulant tolerance? If so, Nitraflex is going to be able to deliver hardcore energy with intense focus. PMP has plenty of caffeine but Nitraflex has the better nootropic blend.



    1. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of ?-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25-37. doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z. Epub 2012 Jan 24.
    1. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obes Res. 2005 Jul;13(7):1195-204.
    1. F. L. Dodd, D. O. Kennedy, L. M. Riby, and C. F. Haskell-Ramsay. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology. 2015; 232(14): 2563–2576. Published online 2015 Mar 13.
    1. Caille E.-J. Study concerning the bisorcate demanol effects upon quantified EEG, cortical vigilance and mood. Comparative double-blind, cross-over balanced design versus pirisudanol. Psychol Med. 1986;18:2069-2086.
    1. Ostojic SM. Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players. Res Sports Med. 2006 Oct-Dec;14(4):289-99.
  • Cellucor CN3 vs. GAT Nitraflex

    Making the most out of your fitness routine may be a lot easier with the help of a pre-workout supplement. A pre-workout is a supplement taken before you hit the weights, track, or pool to help you increase your performance. Thus, you'll be cashing in on the maximum benefit from your exercise routine. While there are many pre-workout supplements out there, we are going to compare two of the most popular ones: Cellucor CN3 vs. GAT Nitraflex.


    Cellucor CN3

    Where can I buy it?

    • Here's where you can buy Cellucor CN3.


    Pros of Cellucor CN3

    Cellucor makes some of the best pre-workout products you'll find on the market and one of their most popular is CN3. It is made up of only two ingredients: 3 grams of Creatine Nitrate and 500 mg of Vitamin C. Together, this combination may be an effective way to boost nitric oxide levels for peak performance.


    If you're looking to build muscle or if your exercise regimen is made up largely of strength training, Cellucor CN3 may be very beneficial. This supplement is a Nitric Oxide Booster, also known as an N.O. Booster, and its primary function is to provide your muscles with oxygen and blood flow. The increased flow and pump of oxygen helps to boost performance during your workout. A side bonus is that insane vein-bulging 'pump' that many lifters report feeling. CN3 may be able to support gains in strength levels and intra-workout performance. (1)


    Cons of Cellucor CN3

    This is a straight-shooting product. It doesn't claim to be an insane pre-workout energy enhancer; rather, it's there to support nitric oxide and performance levels. The only downside to Cellucor CN3 may be the use of artificial flavours and sweeteners but other than that, you're getting a solid N.O. booster.



    GAT Nitraflex

    Where can I buy it?

    • Here's where you can GAT Nitraflex.


    Pros of GAT Nitraflex

    Nitraflex is an extremely potent pre-workout supplement by German American Technologies (GAT). The product enhances energy and strength alike while potentially supporting healthy testosterone production as well.


    Nitraflex includes 3 hard-hitting main ingredients: DMAE, Caffeine, and Beta Alanine. Together, these ingredients work to provide higher energy levels and a larger intra-workout pump. At 325 mg of Caffeine per serving, you'll never feel fatigue during or after your workout.


    The formula of Nitraflex hits your energy needs from all sides: you're getting hardcore stimulants along with nootropics for focus and even some thermogenics, which may support fat burning. All in all, this is an all-around great pre-workout to start your lifting session with. (2-4)


    Cons of GAT Nitraflex

    Downsides to Nitraflex are dependent upon how you react to stimulants. DMAE combined with Caffeine (not to mention the Rauwolscine you're getting) has been known to pack a powerful punch, especially if you don't tolerate stimulants well. You may want to assess your tolerance with half a serving then build up accordingly.


    Other than that, this pre-workout is going to be the one-two punch you need to kick away fatigue and get busy in the gym.


    Which One Should You Choose?

    Here's the thing: Both CN3 and Nitraflex are pre-workouts; however, they are in two radically different categories of pre-workouts. CN3 is a nitric oxide booster while Nitraflex is an energy amplifier and nootropic. The good news: You can (and should) use them together.



    1. Elfego Galvan, Dillon K. Walker, Sunday Y. Simbo, Ryan Dalton, Kyle Levers, Abigail O'Connor, Chelsea Goodenough, Nicholas D. Barringer, Mike Greenwood, Christopher Rasmussen, Stephen B. Smith, Steven E. Riechman, James D. Fluckey, Peter S. Murano, Conrad P. Earnest and Richard B. Kreider. Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition201613:12. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-016-0124-0.
    1. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of ?-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25-37. doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z. Epub 2012 Jan 24.
    1. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obes Res. 2005 Jul;13(7):1195-204.
    1. Caille E.-J. Study concerning the bisorcate demanol effects upon quantified EEG, cortical vigilance and mood. Comparative double-blind, cross-over balanced design versus pirisudanol. Psychol Med. 1986;18:2069-2086.
  • Product Review: Platinum Labs DEFCON1

    Pre-workout supplements are one of the most popular and purchased product next to whey protein and fat burners. We all know the feeling of waking up early, battling through a long 8 to 10 hour day then coming home to be reminded that it's Leg Day. This is where a pre-workout comes in handy. A quality pre-workout is packed with more than just a little bit of caffeine. It should contain a variety of energy boosters and nootropics so that both your mind and body are revitalized.


    Platinum Labs DEFCON1 is said to be one of the most popular pre-workouts in the industry. Check out its ratings around the internet and it's a universally well liked product. Let's take a look to see if Platinum Labs DEFCON1 can hold up to its reputation.




    As soon as you turn the bottle around to face the label, you can already see the decent sized list that Platinum Labs DEFCON1 offers in the way of ingredients. As you scroll down, you'll see that all of the ingredients found within are popular and proven. Right away, Platinum Labs DEFCON1 has a great formula. At the top, it features Beta Alanine at 2 grams, L-Taurine at 1 gram, and Agmatine Sulfate at 750 mg per serving. These three ingredients are an excellent addition to any pre-workout formula. What's more, these are the ideal dosages for these ingredients.


    Studies suggest that those three ingredients may be able to promote the following benefits:

    • May help to boost energy
    • May support intra-workout strength increases
    • May help to reduce muscle fatigue
    • May promote lean muscle mass gains (1-3)


    Naturally, as a pre-workout, Platinum Labs DEFCON1 contains caffeine; however, it doesn't contain an obnoxious amount such as a supplement like Pro Supps' Mr. Hyde does, for example. (Click here to read more about and buy Mr. Hyde from Pro Supps) At 180 mg of caffeine per serving, that's a nice middle ground for those who are caffeine sensitive and for those who double up their pre-workout servings.




    While some ingredients have an ideal dosage per serving, others are lacking a bit. Creatine HCl for example is only provided at 750 mg per serving. While this may be a pre-workout, creatine is a vital part of the energy conversion process, supplying your muscles with ATP for fuel. (4) 750 mg isn't terrible but it's not even close to the standard 5 gram dosage. This same issue can be seen with Betaine Anhydrous and Choline Bitartrate. Again, we're happy they are in there but disappointed at the low dose.


    With that said, these are the only ingredients that have a lower than normal dose. Everything else is great. An easy remedy would be to supplement with creatine in addition to DEFCON1. As a side note to Platinum Labs, the addition of Alpha GPC would make this a perfect pre-workout supplement.


    The only other issue that may be a problem for some is the fact that Platinum Labs DEFCON1 contains artificial sweeteners and colouring. If you aren't too concerned about that, then you have nothing else to worry about.




    Platinum Labs DEFCON1 is a very worthwhile buy and it's no surprise why it's a fan favourite. It contains a variety of well-chosen energy boosters, thermogenics, and nootropics, most of which have been provided to you at their ideal dosage per serving. Taken as a part of any disciplined training program, Platinum Labs DEFCON1 may be able to give you the energy you need to succeed. Click here to buy Platinum Labs DEFCON1.




    1. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of ?-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25-37. doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z. Epub 2012 Jan 24.


    1. Yatabe Y, Miyakawa S, Ohmori H, Mishima H, Adachi T. Effects of taurine administration on exercise. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;643:245-52.


    1. Ryan P Lowery, Jordan M Joy, Joshua E Dudeck, Eduardo Oliveira de Souza, Sean A McCleary, Shawn Wells, Robert Wildman, and Jacob M Wilson. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013; 10: 44. Published online 2013 Oct 9. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-44.


    1. Kreider RB. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Feb;244(1-2):89-94.
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