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  • BSN EndoRush Vs BSN No Xplode

    What is BSN EndoRush?

    BSN EndoRush is the newest product in the BSN pre-workout line-up. A tamer version of its predecessor, N.O. Xplode, BSN EndoRush may be the ideal pre-workout for those just getting started with supplements. It contains a moderate amount of energy boosters, nootropics, and nitric oxide support that provides the rush of a pre-workout without going overboard.



    • Features 150 mg of caffeine per serving (N.O. Xplode has 275 mg)
    • 3 grams of Creatine Monohydrate and 1 gram of Creatine Nitrate to support strength levels
    • Provides nitric oxide support with L-Arginine and L-Citrulline
    • Moderately infused energy booster that is ideal for beginners


    Why You Should Use BSN EndoRush

    Unlike N.O. Xplode with its five-tier energy matrix, BSN EndoRush takes a more straightforward approach and sticks to a foundation of proven and effective energy boosters.


    One thing I really liked about EndoRush is that it does not use a proprietary blend like N.O. Xplode does. You know what ingredients you're getting and exactly how much you're getting. This is a welcome change especially for those who want to make sure they are getting specific dosages of ingredients.


    EndoRush has a well-designed energy blend mixed with a performance-focused formula. Not only will you feel like you're getting next level energy, your muscles will be able to pump out more thanks to ingredients like creatine and l-arginine.


    Thing to Watch Out for With BSN EndoRush

    EndoRush may not be satisfying to those supplement veterans that have been using pre-workouts for years. It's a moderately dosed pre-workout that is ideal for beginners unlike N.O. Xplode, which features a high performance and high-octane formula. If you've built up a tolerance to pre-workouts, you may need an additional scoop of EndoRush.


    What is BSN N.O. Xplode?

    BSN N.O. Xplode features a hard-hitting energy-driven formula that has been the talk of the fitness industry for over a decade. Featuring thermogenics, nootropics, and intra-workout support, BSN N.O. Xplode is a veteran that may be able to effectively support your energy levels, workout performance, and strength levels.



    • Five-tier energy breakdown of ingredients: Myogenic Matrix, Endura Shot, Thermic Energy, N.O. Alpha Fusion, Shock Composite
    • Features 275 mg of caffeine per serving
    • Provides 1.8g of Beta-Alanine to support strength levels
    • Energy boosters are balanced out with ingredients shown to support muscle performance


    Why You Should Use BSN N.O. Xplode

    There's a reason that N.O. Xplode took the market by storm years ago and continues to do so: it works. Despite the formula changes, BSN N.O. Xplode is still an incredibly effective product.


    It's five-tier energy blend provides one of the most well-rounded pre-workout formulas on the market. Yes, you get plenty of caffeine but more importantly, you're getting ingredients that promote sharper thinking, more strength, and fuel for muscle tissue. For example, it contains a creatine blend. Creatine converts into adenosine triphosphate, which is the preferred fuel source of muscle during weight lifting.


    The complexity of the formula shows as researchers clearly went above and beyond, rolling with the punches of the changing restrictions and are still managing to provide a great product.


    Thing to Watch Out for With BSN N.O. Xplode

    BSN N.O. Xplode uses a proprietary blend, which is an issue for me since you know what ingredients are in the formula but you have no idea exactly how much outside of the few things they'll tell you. For example, BSN lets you know that it contains 275 mg of caffeine and 1.8 grams of beta-alanine.


    Still, this is an issue because you'll never know if you are getting the proper dosage level needed to see real results.


    Which Supplement Should You Choose?

    Both supplements are great but which one you choose will depend on experience level. If you're new to taking pre-workout supplements, start with BSN EndoRush. It's a more leveled out pre-workout that won't take you over the edge.


    If this isn't your first rodeo with pre-workouts, then go with BSN N.O. Xplode. It's hard hitting formula will be exactly what you need to get going.



    1. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obes Res. 2005 Jul;13(7):1195-204.


    1. Daniel J. Kuhman, Keanan J. Joyner, and Richard J. Bloomer. Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women. Nutrients. 2015 Nov; 7(11): 9618–9632.


    1. Park SJ, Park DH, Kim DH, Lee S, Yoon BH, Jung WY, Lee KT, Cheong JH, Ryu JH. The memory-enhancing effects of Euphoria longan fruit extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):160-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.001. Epub 2010 Jan 11.


    1. K. Hnia, J. Gayraud, G. Hugon, M. Ramonatxo, S. De La Porte, S. Matecki, et al. L-Arginine Decreases Inflammation and Modulates The Nuclear Factor-?b/Matrix Metalloproteinase Cascade In Mdx Muscle Fibers. Am J Pathol, 172 (6) (2008), pp. 1509-1519.


    1. B.I. Campbell, P.M. La Bounty, M. Roberts. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 1 (2) (2004), pp. 35-38.


    1. Robert Cooper, Fernando Naclerio, Judith Allgrove, and Alfonso Jimenez. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012; 9: 33. Published online 2012 Jul 20. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-33.
  • Create a Pre-Workout: Top 5 Energy Boosting Ingredients


    Are you unhappy with your current pre-workout brand? Is it falling short on providing you with the energy you need to crush your workouts and achieve your fitness goals? Why not create your own?


    Thanks to revolutionary supplement technology, you're now able to create your very own pre-workout supplement. You control which ingredients go in and the dosage of each individual ingredient per serving. If you're ready to make your masterpiece, let's take a look at the top 5 energy boosting ingredients to put in your pre-workout supplement.



    Let's kick off the list with L-Tyrosine. This up-and-coming amino acid has been shown in several studies to be a powerful way to boost cognitive function, improve focus, and support your workout performance.


    As a cognitive booster, L-Tyrosine is considered a nootropic. It's ideal for supporting the learning process and working memory. It also helps to boost your mood and alleviate symptoms from depression. Best of all, it puts your focus in the zone during workouts. (1-3)


    Dosage to Use Per Serving:

    • Standard dose: 500 mg
    • Very active individuals: 700 mg


    Beta Alanine

    If you've ever used a high-quality pre-workout supplement before then you know exactly when Beta Alanine kicks in because it has that tell-tale tingling and flushed feeling that runs down your neck. Beta Alaine is also an amino acid and it's widely used due to its performance-enhancing benefits.


    Studies show that Beta Alanine supplementation can support your performance during your workouts especially in the area of endurance. It also kickstarts your way to recovery and muscle growth. (4-6)


    Dosage to Use Per Serving:

    • Standard dose: 1,200 mg
    • Very active individuals: 2,000 mg


    Guarana Extract

    This herbal extract has been used for hundreds of years to support overall wellness but researchers discovered that it had many other practical benefits including skyrocketing your energy levels. The nice thing about guarana is that it delivers the energy boosting and focus enhancing benefits of caffeine without the jitters or anxiety.


    If you're looking for a natural way to boost your workout performance and promote cognitive function such as focus and alertness, guarana needs to be in your pre-workout supplement. (7-8)


    Want to know how to create your very own supplement? You can use the Amino Z Supplement Builder to do just that! Try it today and create your ideal pre-workout supplement.


    Dosage to Use Per Serving:

    • Standard dose: 500 mg
    • Very active individuals: 1,000 mg


    Agmatine Sulfate

    While Agmatine may not directly support energy levels like guarana, it does significantly help your workout performance as a nitric oxide booster. Higher levels of nitric oxide in the blood during your workout may equate to that pumped up feeling that many weight lifters strive to experience. Agmatine is also helpful for recovery as it alleviates inflammation and soreness. (9-11)


    Dosage to Use Per Serving:

    • Standard dose: 700 mg
    • Very active individuals: 1,000 mg


    Caffeine Anhydrous

    Last but certainly not least, no pre-workout supplement is complete without some help from caffeine. If you drink coffee every morning, you know exactly what caffeine can do for you. It spikes your energy levels, ignites your focus, and boosts your overall performance. This isn't just hearsay, there are plenty of studies out there confirming that caffeine is one of the best natural energy boosters you can get your hands on. (12-14)


    Dosage to Use Per Serving:

    • Standard dose: 150 mg
    • Very active individuals: 300 mg



    Looking for an effective pre-workout supplement? Why not make your own? Now you can with the Amino Z Supplement Builder. Use our guide above to make an incredible potent pre-workout. You can even experiment and try other ingredients that suit your body and fitness goals. Try it today!



    1. Colzato LS, Jongkees BJ, Sellaro R, Hommel B. Working Memory Reloaded: Tyrosine Repletes Updating in the N-Back Task. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2013;7:200. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00200.


    1. Reinstein DK, Lehnert H, Scott NA, Wurtman RJ. Tyrosine prevents behavioral and neurochemical correlates of an acute stress in rats. Life Sci. 1984 Jun 4;34(23):2225-31.


    1. Alan J. Gelenberg, M.D., Candace J. Gibson, Ph.D. Tyrosine for the Treatment of Depression. Nutrition and Health. 3:3, 163-173. July 1, 1984.


    1. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of ?-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25-37. doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z. Epub 2012 Jan 24.


    1. Artioli GG, Gualano B, Smith A, Stout J, Lancha AH Jr. Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jun;42(6):1162-73. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181c74e38.


    1. Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, Stout J. (2006) Effect of Creatine and Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Endocrine Responses in Strength/Power Athletes. IJSNEM, 16(4).


    1. Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 Nov;79(3):401-11.


    1. Moustakas D, Mezzio M, Rodriguez BR, Constable MA, Mulligan ME, Voura EB. Guarana Provides Additional Stimulation over Caffeine Alone in the Planarian Model. Holscher C, ed. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(4):e0123310. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123310.


    1. Gilad GM, Gilad VH. Long-term (5 years), high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--evidence of safety: a case report. J Med Food. 2014 Nov;17(11):1256-9. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.0026. Epub 2014 Sep 23.


    1. Aggarwal S, Shavalian B, Kim E, Rawls SM. Agmatine enhances cannabinoid action in the hot-plate assay of thermal nociception. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Oct;93(4):426-32. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2009.06.004. Epub 2009 Jun 16.


    1. Galea, E et al. 'Inhibition of Mammalian Nitric Oxide Synthases by Agmatine, an Endogenous Polyamine Formed by Decarboxylation of Arginine.' Biochemical Journal 316.Pt 1 (1996): 247–249. Print.


    1. Acheson KJ, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Pittet P, Anantharaman K, Jéquier E. Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 May;33(5):989-97.


    1. Daniel Borota, Elizabeth Murray, Gizem Keceli, Allen Chang, Joseph M Watabe, Maria Ly, John P Toscano, & Michael A Yassa. Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans. Nature Neuroscience 17, 201–203 (2014) doi:10.1038/nn.3623.


    1. David Furman, Junlei Chang, Lydia Lartigue, et al. Expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extreme clinical and immunological states. Nature Medicine 23, 174–184 (2017) doi:10.1038/nm.4267.
  • Cellucor C4 Ripped vs. Cellucor C4 Mass

    What is Cellucor C4 Ripped?

    Cellucor C4 Ripped provides all of the benefits of the original C4 formula with an extra thermogenic boost for those of you who are also trying to get lean and focus on muscle definition or overall fat burning. While not the best thermogenic supplement out there, it's important to remember that C4 Ripped is a pre-workout first and a thermogenic booster second.


    Why You Should Use Cellucor C4 Ripped

    C4 Ripped is a solid pre-workout featuring a unique energy blend. It provides you with caffeine anhydrous, velvet bean, and N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine. It does not feature TeaCor, a special form of caffeine found in the original formula, and this is surprising considering the energy and thermogenic benefits of the ingredient. C4 Mass does feature this ingredient. With that said, C4 Ripped still captures the energy boosting benefits of the original formula.


    If your goal is energy first and fat burning second, then C4 Ripped is going to be an excellent choice. It contains a fat burning blend featuring scientifically proven ingredients that can promote a higher level of fat burning. Green tea extract, l-carnitine, and capsicum are the stars of this list, being found to promote a higher metabolic rate that supports fat burning.


    Things to Watch Out for With Cellucor C4 Ripped

    Despite having a thermogenic formula that contains some hard-hitting fat burners, it's important to note the dosage of C4 Ripped. There just isn't enough of the fat burning ingredients to be as effective as if you were taking those ingredients on their own at the proper dosage level. Sure, you'll be supporting your metabolic rate but not nearly at the level you would if you were taking 1 gram of capsicum on its own, for example.


    As mentioned above, C4 Ripped is a pre-workout first and a fat burner second. It should be looked at as a way to increase performance and be a complement to a fat burning diet. If you're expecting C4 Ripped to be some magic bullet, you are going to be disappointed.


    What is Cellucor C4 Mass?

    Cellucor C4 Mass is the brand's attempt to cater a pre-workout to the mass building crowd. Cellucor has added a carbohydrate blend to the mix as those who are going through a bulking phase will have a much higher carbohydrate consumption each day. Used as directed, Cellucor C4 Mass can become a helpful tool to complement your bulking diet and training program.


    Why You Should Use Cellucor C4 Mass

    If you are serious about trying to add mass, then C4 Mass may be a great pre-workout to utilize. It's important to remember that it is a pre-workout, not a mass gainer. Rather, it is a form of mass building support but it is NOT a mass gainer.


    With its carbohydrate blend and addition of two forms of creatine, this is a pre-workout that is geared towards complementing your current mass building diet and workout program.


    In terms of energy boosting, one of the ways in which C4 Mass may be superior to C4 Ripped is the inclusion of TeaCor. This is a form of caffeine that provides all of the energy boosting effective of caffeine without the caffeine-related jitters. When paired with caffeine anhydrous, TeaCor is even more effective, boosting your energy levels while taming any fight-or-flight anxiousness. However, this really comes down to preference as some people may respond really well to TeaCor while others get more energy from a combination of energy boosters and thermogenics like you find with C4 Ripped.


    Things to Watch Out for With Cellucor C4 Mass

    Cellucor C4 Mass contains polydextrose, which is considered fibre; however, there is a clear difference between a fibre-rich food and a chemical additive. Unfortunately, the FDA does not differentiate one fibre from another. While polydextrose may be useful for a bulking diet, it's important that you understand this is not going to count towards your daily recommended fibre intake. You should focus on fibre-rich whole foods and not depend on a pre-workout supplement as your source of fibre for the day.


    Which Supplement Should You Choose?

    C4 Ripped and C4 Mass are both pre-workouts but they are geared towards two completely different crowds. Both are powerful energy boosters so in that regard they are equally useful. If you follow a bulking and cutting cycle during the appropriate seasons, then we would recommend getting both as you can use C4 Mass while bulking up and you can use C4 Ripped when you want to focus on leaning out.



    1. Spradley BD, Crowley KR, Tai C-Y, et al. Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2012;9:28. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-28.


    1. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obes Res. 2005 Jul;13(7):1195-204.


    1. F. L. Dodd, D. O. Kennedy, L. M. Riby, and C. F. Haskell-Ramsay. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology. 2015; 232(14): 2563–2576. Published online 2015 Mar 13.


    1. Kuhman, Daniel J., Keanan J. Joyner, and Richard J. Bloomer. 'Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women.' Nutrients 7.11 (2015): 9618–9632. PMC. Web. 2 Aug. 2017.


    1. Brandsch C, Eder K. Effect of L-carnitine on weight loss and body composition of rats fed a hypocaloric diet. Ann Nutr Metab. 2002;46(5):205-10.


    1. Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2003 Sep;90(3):651-59.
  • 5 Reasons You Need to Start Taking Taurine

    If you're consuming a modern-day energy drink, there's a good chance that you've been drinking more than just caffeine. Found in energy drinks and fitness supplements, Taurine has become a popular additive due to its potential benefits in energy, endurance, and muscle building. That's just the fitness side of things.


    Taurine, as a supplement, has a lot to offer outside of the gym. Let's take a look at the top 5 benefits of taurine and why you need to start making it a part of your supplement program today.


    5. Muscle Tissue

    First, let's talk about Taurine and your lean muscle mass. As an amino acid, Taurine may be able to help prevent catabolism from taking place in the tissue. Catabolism, or protein breakdown, can rob you of those hard-earned gains. Adding Taurine to your supplement routine may help protect your muscle. (1)


    4. Intra-Workout Energy

    Ever wonder why they add Taurine to energy drinks? As we'll talk about more below, Taurine is an important nutrient for neurological processes. Considered a nootropic ingredient, Taurine may be able to support your focus and alertness during a workout. (1, 3)


    3. Performance Levels

    Continuing with the idea above, Taurine may be an effective and safe way to improve athletic performance. As a nootropic, Taurine may be able to boost your reaction time, which is going to come in handy during sports. The increased focus levels may provide a more intense workout as well. (1, 3)


    2. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    One of the most interesting benefits of Taurine is how it may be able to decrease your risk of cardiovascular disease. A study published in Experimental & Clinical Cardiology suggests that daily supplementation of Taurine may be able to reduce your risk of developing common cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure and heart disease. (2)


    1. Mood, Anxiety, & Depression

    Although it's only an amino acid, Taurine plays an important role as a pre-cursor to certain neurotransmitters. Anxiety and depression are thought to be fueled by a lack of certain neurotransmitters such as GABA or serotonin. Supplementing with Taurine has been suggested in studies to alleviate anxiety and support a healthy mood and mindset. (3)


    Want to make your own Taurine supplement packed with other helpful ingredients? Now you can with the Amino Z Supplement Builder!


    You get full control of the ingredients and dosage levels. Not sure where to start? Amino Z has pre-made ingredients for you dosed at scientifically proven levels. Get started today with the Amino Z Supplement Builder.



    1. Yatabe Y, Miyakawa S, Ohmori H, Mishima H, Adachi T. Effects of taurine administration on exercise. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;643:245-52.


    1. Xu Y-J, Arneja AS, Tappia PS, Dhalla NS. The potential health benefits of taurine in cardiovascular disease. Experimental & Clinical Cardiology. 2008;13(2):57-65.


    1. El Idrissi A, Boukarrou L, Heany W, Malliaros G, Sangdee C, Neuwirth L. Effects of taurine on anxiety-like and locomotor behavior of mice. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;643:207-15.
  • EHP Labs Beyond BCAA vs. BSN Amino X

    What is EHP Labs Beyond BCAA?


    EHP Labs Beyond BCAA is a branched chain amino acid supplement that is an industry favourite thanks to its properly dosed amino acid formula. Featuring a 2:1:1 ratio of Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine, respectively, Beyond BCAA may be able to help boost protein synthesis, trigger muscle growth, and support post-workout recovery.



    • Provides 5 grams of BCAAs, which have proven to be essential for performance, growth, and recovery
    • Features an electrolyte blend to support intra-workout performance
    • B-Vitamin complex is essential for recovery
    • Citrulline Malate has been suggested to promote intra-workout performance (1-6)


    Why You Should Use EHP Labs Beyond BCAA


    What are your fitness goals?

    Do you want to increase lean muscle tissue?

    Looking to promote healthy weight loss?

    Need to recover faster?


    An elite branched chain amino acid supplement can help you achieve all of these goals. The amino acids that you'll find in EHP Labs Beyond BCAA are properly dosed to take advantage of the scientifically validated 2:1:1 ratio for maximum benefits.


    BSN Amino X offers a greater dosage of amino acids at 10 grams per serving; however, BSN does not include a breakdown of the quantity of each ingredient. Without knowing the exact amount of the essential amino acids per serving, you can't know if you're getting the 2:1:1 ratio that is so critical for results. You can easily reach a pure 10-gram dosage of Beyond BCAA by simply doubling the dose, assuming you aren't worried about cost.


    Things to Watch Out for with EHP Labs Beyond BCAA


    Continuing with the idea above with getting a 10-gram dosage from Beyond BCAA, the label advertises itself as a 10-gram dosage. The truth is that Beyond BCAA requires you to double the dosage if you want reach that 10-gram dose. BSN Amino X, on the other hand, provides 10 grams of amino acids with one serving. The catch there is that you don't know the exact amount of each amino acid. This results in something of a draw for both brands, making them equal with the amino acids they provide in a single serving.


    What is BSN Amino X?


    Amino X features a unique amino acid and electrolyte blend. Not only will you find essential amino acids, which are necessary for muscle growth, performance, and recovery but you'll also get a variety of non-essential amino acids that can further your fitness gains.



    • Provides 10 grams of amino acids for performance and muscle building
    • Electrolyte blend supports intra-workout performance
    • Features Taurine to boost energy levels
    • L-Citrulline is included and this may help to boost nitric oxide production (1-6)


    Why You Should Use BSN Amino X


    BSN Amino X is a high performing amino acid supplement that features the essentials as well as some extras that have all been suggested to support your fitness goals.


    At 10 grams per serving, BSN Amino X may arguably be superior to EHP Labs Beyond BCAA; however, this cannot be confirmed because Amino X uses a proprietary blend. Within a proprietary blend, you aren't told the exact amount of the ingredients that you're getting. Still, with that said, at 10 grams, there is a good chance that Amino X is following the scientifically proven 2:1:1 ratio.


    What's more, Amino X provides electrolytes to help support performance along with a few other non-essential amino acids, which may promote energy levels and recovery. (1-6)


    Things to Watch Out for With BSN Amino X


    The only thing you have to be aware of is that BSN Amino X uses a proprietary blend, which means it's a guessing game with the exact amount of each ingredient. EHP Labs doesn't do this and that alone may be the deciding factor for you.


    However, at 10 grams per serving, there's a good chance that your body is getting an effective dose of amino acids without the need to double dose.




    You have two highly effective amino acid supplements that can both do an excellent job at supporting your fitness goals of muscle building, weight loss, and performance enhancement.


    If you aren't a fan of putting your trust into proprietary blends then you may opt to go with the EHP Labs Beyond BCAA. If you want a high dose per serving of different essential amino acids, then your best bet is BSN Amino X.


    Still not sure? Try both and see which one your body responds best to.




    1. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, Karlsson HK, Köhnke R. Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):269S-73S.


    1. Norton, Layne, Layman, Donald. Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise. J. Nutr. February 2006 vol. 136 no. 2 533S-537S.


    1. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Sep;48(3):347-51.


    1. Mourier A, Bigard AX, de Kerviler E, Roger B, Legrand H, Guezennec CY. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med. 1997 Jan;18(1):47-55.


    1. De Lorenzo A, Petroni ML, Masala S, Melchiorri G, Pietrantuono M, Perriello G, Andreoli A. Effect of acute and chronic branched-chain amino acids on energy metabolism and muscle performance. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):291-7.


    1. Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cb28e0.
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