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Research Updates

  • Sedentary life style can be detrimental

    Having a sedentary life style doesn't just make you unfit or gain weight. A recent study by Schmid and Meitzmann and published in the Journal of National Cancer Institute meta-analysed data collected from 4 million individuals including 68,936 cancer cases concluded that there is an increased risks of chronic disease and mortality rate associated with sedentary behaviors such as watching TV.


    The study found that each 2-hour per day increase in sitting time outside your normal occupation is associated with an 8% increased risk in colon cancer, a 10% increased risk in endometrial cancer and 6% increased risk in lung cancer. The increased risks in these cancers appear to be independent of physical activity. This means spending a large amount of time sitting down could be detrimental to health even to those who do regular exercise. Sitting at work seems to be a lot healthier than watching TV, given that you don't over do it. A 2-hour per day increment in sitting at work has been found to increase the risk of obesity by 5%, whereas each 2-hour per day increase in TV time is associated with 23% increase in obesity risks.


    The mechanism of which sedentary behaviors cause cancer is unclear. However, the authors of the study speculated that unhealthy eating habits, vitamin D deficiency due to a lack of sun exposure, weight gain from low energy expenditure and an increase in pro-inflammatory markers in blood due to prolonged sedentary life style maybe the main culprits. Colon cancer and endometrial cancer are obesity related cancers. Therefore, the increased risks of cancer caused by sedentary life style may work through similar pathways, even if you are not obese.


    People today spend on average 50 - 60% of their time in sedentary pursuits and we are in the middle of an obesity epidemic. On top of that, it's forecasted by the US National Cancer Institute that 1 in 2 men and 1 in 3 women will bear the risk of developing some form of cancer by 2050 in the US, doubling the current rates. Doing regular exercise can reduce the risk of mortality and chronic diseases. The world health organization (WHO) recognizes this and recommends adults to do a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise each week. What the WHO guideline doesn't address is the amount of time spent by people in sedentary pursuits, which will cause an increased risk in cancer independent of physical activity levels. It is therefore recommended that one should consciously limit the time spent watching TV and other screen-based entertainments. It is also recommended that children and adults should breakup their sitting-down periods, let it be at work or watching TV, traveling on a plane or during long distant driving with interspersing intervals of standing or short exercises. We as humans are not built to cope with sedentariness, start moving and life will prosper.

  • Exercise makes you live longer, a US study shows

    A US study, conducted by Moore et al and published in the prestigious PLOS Medicine in late 2012 examined the relationships between leisure time physical activity levels, longevity and rate of mortality of 654827 individuals aged between 21-90 from America and Sweden and showed that exercise can indeed affect human life expectancy. In fact, the more exercise you do, the longer you live.


    The world health organization recommends a minimum of 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity exercise or an equivalent combination of both for health benefits. Moore et al found that a high level of leisure time physical activity is associated with lower risk of mortality and a longer life expectancy compared to people who do no exercise at all. Leisure time physical activity is the activity OUTSIDE the context of job, housework, transportation and other essentials of daily living. Working hard at your job is NO substitute for real exercise.


    The study found that any leisure time physical activity is beneficial to your longevity and reduces the risk of mortality. People did leisure time physical activities at any levels below the recommended minimum experienced an average gain of 1.8 years of life expectancy compared to people who did not exercise at all. Keeping activity levels at or slightly above the recommended minimum would further reduce the risk of mortality and increased average life expectancy by 3.4 years. Doing twice the recommended minimum amount of leisure time physical activity would give a 4.2 year gain in average life expectancy and doing 3 or more times the recommended minimum would give a 4.5 year gain. The amount of life expectancy gained as well the reduction in rate of mortality from doing exercise appeared to plateau at around 2-3 times the recommended minimum level. The trends described above applied to all age groups, genders, racial backgrounds, education levels and BMI groups in the people tested albeit with slight variations.


    The study also found that the benefit of doing leisure time physical activity is more pronounced in former smokers, and people with a history of heart diseases and cancer. Obesity (BMI: 30+) was found to be associated with a lower life expectancy in all physical activity groups compared to those with a BMI between 18.5 - 29.9 (normal weight and over weight). Obese people who did not exercise lived 7.2 years shorter than people with normal weight (BMI: 18.5 - 24.9) who did at least the recommended minimum level of exercise each week. However, the interesting finding was that class I obese people (BMI: 30 - 34.9) who did more than the recommended minimum level of physical activity had an average of 3.1 years longer life expectancy compared to people with normal weight but did no exercise at all.


    So what do all these mean? The study shows us that any leisure time physical activity is beneficial to your health and longevity. In fact, the more exercise you do, the better. A lack of physical activity is associated with an increased mortality rate and reduced life expectancy, especially when combined with obesity. The world health organization recommends a minimum of 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity exercise in order to be beneficial to health. Doing 2-3 times that amount has been found to be the most beneficial. Having an active life style is not just for the looks, your body will thank you for it.

  • Effect of rest on Power in the Bench Press

    Researchers at two universities in Sao Paulo, Brazil came together to determine how the rest between workout sets effects 1RM results using the bench press as a sample.
  • Study: 12 Week Wellness Program for Middle-aged Men

    Increased rates of obesity and poor overall health means a strain on health care systems. This study was conducted to examine the viability and success of a potential 12 week program.
  • New Diabetic Drug gives Patients Hope

    A clinical trial on a new diabetes drug at UCSF sheds light on the potential success of a new drug.
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