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General Health

  • Calories are not created equal

    The balance of our body weight can be seen as an act of balancing energy input and energy expenditure. There are four subcomponents that contribute to energy expenditure: resting energy expenditure (the energy used to just stay alive), thermic effect of food (the energy needed to digest food), activity energy expenditure (energy used from doing activities) and total energy expenditure (the combination of the 3 above). Calories-in-calories out is the traditional model for weight gain and weight loss. Many professionals hold the belief that a calorie is a calorie, no matter what you eat. However, it has became more apparent that not all calories are created equal, some calories will make you burn more energy, through altering one or more of the 4 subcomponents of energy expenditure.

     

    A study conducted by Ebbling et al and published in the prestigious The Journal of the American Medical Association in 2012 compared the effects of three common diets, low-fat diet, low-GI diet and low-carb diet on energy expenditure. In contrast to the conventional recommendations, the study showed that the low-fat diet tested was probably the worst diet for weight loss and maintenance compared to the low GI and low carb diets. The authors concluded that low fat diet "produces changes in energy expenditure and serum leptin that would predict weight regain".

     

    In agreement with some available diet programs, the study showed that low-carb diet resulted in the highest resting energy expenditure and total energy expenditure in most test subjects compared to the low-fat and low-GI diets. Test subjects on a low-carb diet used on average 67kcal per day more resting energy than subjects on a low-fat diet and 29kcal per day more compared to those on a low-GI diet. The figures shown represented average data from all test subjects, there were of course exceptions, some people tested seemed to respond better and burn more energy on low-GI and low-fat diets. One has to choose what is more suitable for them based on their own experiences.

     

    Although low-carb diet is the most beneficial in terms of energy expenditure and a number of metabolic syndrome components, prolonged enforcement of this diet can increase the secretion of the stress hormone cortisol in the body. High cortisol levels may in turn promote fat gain, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Therefor, low-carb diet may not be a long-term solution to weight loss and maintenance.

     

    Low-GI diet on the other hand, appeared to be the most healthy and sustainable in the long run compared to the low-carb diet, even though the effect on energy expenditure was not as pronounced, it was comparable nevertheless and more effective than the low-fat diet.

     

    Altering the components of your diet based on how your respond to different foods can make a significant impact on the body's energy expenditure and consequently affects weight loss/maintenance. Reducing fat from your diet doesn't necessarily translate into fat loss. A low-carb diet may be an effective and safe short-term boot camp solution for some but may also be harmful in the long run for others. A low-GI diet might not have the impact of the low-carb diet but it may be good for weight maintenance. Different people will respond to different types of food differently and you will have to find what's best for you. Remember, not all calories are created equal.

  • Sedentary life style can be detrimental

    Having a sedentary life style doesn't just make you unfit or gain weight. A recent study by Schmid and Meitzmann and published in the Journal of National Cancer Institute meta-analysed data collected from 4 million individuals including 68,936 cancer cases concluded that there is an increased risks of chronic disease and mortality rate associated with sedentary behaviors such as watching TV.

     

    The study found that each 2-hour per day increase in sitting time outside your normal occupation is associated with an 8% increased risk in colon cancer, a 10% increased risk in endometrial cancer and 6% increased risk in lung cancer. The increased risks in these cancers appear to be independent of physical activity. This means spending a large amount of time sitting down could be detrimental to health even to those who do regular exercise. Sitting at work seems to be a lot healthier than watching TV, given that you don't over do it. A 2-hour per day increment in sitting at work has been found to increase the risk of obesity by 5%, whereas each 2-hour per day increase in TV time is associated with 23% increase in obesity risks.

     

    The mechanism of which sedentary behaviors cause cancer is unclear. However, the authors of the study speculated that unhealthy eating habits, vitamin D deficiency due to a lack of sun exposure, weight gain from low energy expenditure and an increase in pro-inflammatory markers in blood due to prolonged sedentary life style maybe the main culprits. Colon cancer and endometrial cancer are obesity related cancers. Therefore, the increased risks of cancer caused by sedentary life style may work through similar pathways, even if you are not obese.

     

    People today spend on average 50 - 60% of their time in sedentary pursuits and we are in the middle of an obesity epidemic. On top of that, it's forecasted by the US National Cancer Institute that 1 in 2 men and 1 in 3 women will bear the risk of developing some form of cancer by 2050 in the US, doubling the current rates. Doing regular exercise can reduce the risk of mortality and chronic diseases. The world health organization (WHO) recognizes this and recommends adults to do a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise each week. What the WHO guideline doesn't address is the amount of time spent by people in sedentary pursuits, which will cause an increased risk in cancer independent of physical activity levels. It is therefore recommended that one should consciously limit the time spent watching TV and other screen-based entertainments. It is also recommended that children and adults should breakup their sitting-down periods, let it be at work or watching TV, traveling on a plane or during long distant driving with interspersing intervals of standing or short exercises. We as humans are not built to cope with sedentariness, start moving and life will prosper.

  • Exercise makes you live longer, a US study shows

    A US study, conducted by Moore et al and published in the prestigious PLOS Medicine in late 2012 examined the relationships between leisure time physical activity levels, longevity and rate of mortality of 654827 individuals aged between 21-90 from America and Sweden and showed that exercise can indeed affect human life expectancy. In fact, the more exercise you do, the longer you live.

     

    The world health organization recommends a minimum of 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity exercise or an equivalent combination of both for health benefits. Moore et al found that a high level of leisure time physical activity is associated with lower risk of mortality and a longer life expectancy compared to people who do no exercise at all. Leisure time physical activity is the activity OUTSIDE the context of job, housework, transportation and other essentials of daily living. Working hard at your job is NO substitute for real exercise.

     

    The study found that any leisure time physical activity is beneficial to your longevity and reduces the risk of mortality. People did leisure time physical activities at any levels below the recommended minimum experienced an average gain of 1.8 years of life expectancy compared to people who did not exercise at all. Keeping activity levels at or slightly above the recommended minimum would further reduce the risk of mortality and increased average life expectancy by 3.4 years. Doing twice the recommended minimum amount of leisure time physical activity would give a 4.2 year gain in average life expectancy and doing 3 or more times the recommended minimum would give a 4.5 year gain. The amount of life expectancy gained as well the reduction in rate of mortality from doing exercise appeared to plateau at around 2-3 times the recommended minimum level. The trends described above applied to all age groups, genders, racial backgrounds, education levels and BMI groups in the people tested albeit with slight variations.

     

    The study also found that the benefit of doing leisure time physical activity is more pronounced in former smokers, and people with a history of heart diseases and cancer. Obesity (BMI: 30+) was found to be associated with a lower life expectancy in all physical activity groups compared to those with a BMI between 18.5 - 29.9 (normal weight and over weight). Obese people who did not exercise lived 7.2 years shorter than people with normal weight (BMI: 18.5 - 24.9) who did at least the recommended minimum level of exercise each week. However, the interesting finding was that class I obese people (BMI: 30 - 34.9) who did more than the recommended minimum level of physical activity had an average of 3.1 years longer life expectancy compared to people with normal weight but did no exercise at all.

     

    So what do all these mean? The study shows us that any leisure time physical activity is beneficial to your health and longevity. In fact, the more exercise you do, the better. A lack of physical activity is associated with an increased mortality rate and reduced life expectancy, especially when combined with obesity. The world health organization recommends a minimum of 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity exercise in order to be beneficial to health. Doing 2-3 times that amount has been found to be the most beneficial. Having an active life style is not just for the looks, your body will thank you for it.

  • Water fad

    Functional drinks are the new fad, do they really live up to the hype? In this article we examined the science behind some of the claims made by the manufacturers of 3 popular types of drinks: the oxygenated water, vitamin water and coconut water.

    Oxygenated water

    Let's start with oxygenated water, in some places it's called hyper or super oxygenated water, as all water is more of less oxygenated. One may ask: can oxygen supplementation improve exercise performance? Yes. It was observed that the BREATHING oxygen DURING exercise could enhance athletic performance (Wagner 1996, Annual Review of Physiology). But the timing of the oxygen supplementation is important, breathing 100% oxygen before or after exercise or during exercise intervals does not aid recovery or enhance performance (Robbins et al. 1992, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise). This means that, assuming drinking oxygen is the same as breathing oxygen, you will have be drink the water while exercising. How much oxygen do hyperoxygenated water contain? Well, certainly not 100%

    The solubility of oxygen in liquid is very low, it is related to temperature and the pressure at the air-liquid interface (the surface of the water). The oxygen content of bottled water can thus be increased by increasing the pressure inside the bottle. However, once the pressure drops, i.e. the opening of the bottle, the water will start to de-gas quite rapidly, much like carbonated soft drinks. The oxygen content inside the water will consequently fall to normal levels, similar to that of found in tap water. One has to open the bottle to drink the water, therefore even if the oxygen content of the water inside the bottle is significantly higher than in normal water, its oxygen concentration will be greatly reduced by the time it reaches your stomach. One study measured the oxygen concentration in 5 different brands of hyperoxygenated water in SEALED bottles and compared that with the oxygen concentration of normal tap water. It was found that 4 out of the 5 brands did indeed have a higher oxygen concentration as compared to normal tap water (3-9 times higher depends on bands), however one was the same as tap water (Hampson et al. 2003, JAMA). There seemed to be quite a bit of inconsistency in quality between different brands. The highest oxygen concentration in the hyperoxygenated water tested as determined in the Hampson study was only 8%, which is much lower than the 21% oxygen content of the air. This means each litre of hyperoxygenated water contains around 80mL of air, whereas a normal human can inhale roughly 100mL of oxygen with each breath. No wonder Piantadosi proclaimed in the British Journal of Sports Medicine: "A breath of fresh air contains more O2 than a litre of hyperoxygenated water".

    One may argue that the extra oxygen in water can be absorbed directly into the body hence have health benefits. That is not true, in fact, there is no conclusive evidence suggesting that oxygen in water could be absorbed by the body. Even if the oxygen did somehow enter the blood stream via the intestines, it would probably enter the veins rather than an artery, which will then be on its way to get re-oxygenated by the lung. It was postulated that for ingested oxygen to have any potential effect on a normal person's systemic oxygen delivery, one would need to provide 250mL of rapidly absorbable oxygen per minute (Piantadosi 2006, British Journal of Sports Medicine). To be able to achieve that, you will have to drink over 3 litres of hyperoxygenated water that contains 9 times higher concentration of oxygen than tap water per minute, and hoping that all oxygen in the water will get absorbed into the blood streams. That's going to be a lot of money spent on water, per minute ;-)

    Now, all theories aside, can oxygenated water improve your exercise performance and recovery in a practical setting? The answer is no. There's currently no scientific evidence supporting the notion that consuming hyperoxygenated water can improve exercise performance or aid recovery (McNaughton et al 2007, International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance; Wing-Gaia et al. 2005, International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism; Leibetseder et al. 2006, International Journal of Sports Medicine). It's suggested that the amount of oxygen contained in the water is too low to have any impact on the plasma oxygen levels as hemoglobin (the iron-containing oxygen transport protein in red blood cells) is usually saturated (or close to being saturated) with oxygen during breathing (Jenkins et al. 2002, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise). On top of that, the oxygen in the water is likely to be consumed by the cells in the gut before they had any chance of reaching the blood or muscles (Willmert at al. 2002, Journal of Exercise Physiology).

    So, what can hyperoxygenated water do? It's good for hydration, just like normal water. Drinking hyperoxygenated water does not have any adverse effects on liver, blood and immune system (Gruber et al. 2005, Clinical Nutrition). Interestingly, studies found that the consumption of hyperoxygenated water could cause a temporary raise in oxygen radicals in the body (Schoenberg et al. 2002, European Journal of Medical Research; Gruber et al. 2005, Clinical Nutrition). This slight raise in oxygen radicals only lasted a short period and only happened to people who don't consume hyperoxygenated water regularly. No potential health implications were mentioned in any of these studies. Hyperoxygenated water is safe for human consumption.

    Vitamin water

    I have to say I liked the idea of vitamin water, it's a neat concept. However, after picking up a few bottles of different flavored vitamin water from the supermarket, and carefully examined their nutritional contents, I started having doubts about whether this is a good idea after all. Here are my reasons:

    • Regardless the formulation, vitamin water generally contains a limited number of key vitamins and minerals, and a lot of sugar. Each 500mL bottle contains around 30 grams of sugar, this almost equal to the amount of sugar found in a can of regular coke. If you opt for the sugar-free version, please refer to the aspartame article in the previous edition of this magazine before proceeding further. One may argue that vitamin water is a form of sports drink, and sugar can help with exercise performance (please refer to Are sports drinks beneficial during workouts in the Oct/Nov 2012 edition of the magazine). Of course, having carbs (in the form of sugars) is somewhat important, however, in order for the drink to function as a sports drink, one should also contain a good amount of electrolytes, such as potassium, which is noticeably absent in some of the formulations. Make sure to pick a formulation that contains a good dose of potassium if you wish to use it as a sports drink.
    • One other concern I have is the quality and the stability of vitamins in the drinks. There are 2 types of vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, including vitamin B and vitamin C; and fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin A, D, E and K. Both types of vitamins tend degrade after dissolved in liquid, albeit at different rates. One study investigated the stability of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in vitamin enriched liquid serum and found that after one year of storage at -20 degrees C, up to 30% of the water-soluble vitamins were degraded whereas over 50% of the fat-soluble vitamins were degraded (Ihara et al. 2004, Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis). There is no guaranty of the conditions where the vitamin water was stored and transport before they reached the shelves and thus no real assurance of the quality and stability of the vitamins. Indeed, currently available studies investigating the efficacy of the vitamins in vitamin waters only studied the water-soluble vitamins. One study investigated the absorption of vitamin C and B in a commercially available vitamin water and compared to that of the vitamins contained in mixed meals, and found the blood vitamin levels to be identical after consumption (Kalman et al. 2009, International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition). Another study used self-made vitamin C and iron-fortified water and found that it can improve people's nutritional status after 5 months of consumption (Rhoca Dda et al. 2011, Food and Nutrition Bulletin).

    Overall, I think the vitamin water currently available on the market is not that dissimilar to the common soft drinks, minus the fizziness. If you want nice tasting water that has a good range of nutrients and antioxidants without all the artificial additives, try fresh juice.

    Coconut water

    Coconut water, or more scientifically but less appealingly, coconut liquid endosperm has been dubbed by some as one of the worlds most versatile natural products. When I say coconut water here as a drink, I mean the clear, natural, unprocessed, unsweetened liquid taken directly from a fresh coconut, not to be confused with the white coconut milk commonly used in cooking in some of the South East Asian countries. Natural coconut water contains a huge variety of vitamins, amino acids, minerals, fibers, with little fat (less than 0.2%), protein (less than 0.75%) and relative low amount (less than 5%) of sugars (contains a mixture of glucose, sucrose and fructose). The energy content of coconut water is around 79kj per 100g. The sodium content of coconut water varies depending on the growth environment and the age of the coconuts, it can range from 1.75mg/100g of water (results from 1 study) to 105mg/100g of water (results from 3 studies). Many of the nutrients are only found in low levels in coconut water, however, it contains a large amount of potassium, at over 200mg per 100g of water (Yong at al. 2009, Molecules). There is more potassium in 100g of coconut water than that of in a common 600mL (roughly 600g) sports drink. It has been suggested by some that certain contents in coconut water, when used as a pure agent in high doses may have anti-aging, anti-cancer properties in fruit flies or mammalian cell lines. However, I have yet to see any concrete proof to show that the consumption and/or application of coconut water have any such effects in humans.

    Coconut water has been found to be able to effectively aid rehydration after exercise induced dehydration and support physical performance in a similar fashion compared to that of a commercially available carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drinks (Kalman et al. 2012, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition). Another recent study evaluated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of coconut water extracted from mature coconuts on diabetic rats. It showed that diabetic animals treated with the coconut water had lower blood glucose levels and reduced oxidative stress (Preetha et al. 2012, Food and Function). Of course, rats are very different to humans and a positive result obtained on rats does not mean it will translate into humans, in fact, in many cases it doesn't. It would be nice to to see similar studies to be conducted on human patients as here is currently no study that demonstrates drinking coconut water has any tangible benefits on human health, other than providing hydration and supply electrolytes.

    So all in all, I think coconut water is a healthier alternative to artificially flavored sports drinks, at least it's natural. However, some natural coconut water contains more sodium (salt) per 100mL than sports drinks. We already ingest more than enough salt from our diet and having too much salt can lead to a number of health complications. In addition, the trace amount of vitamins and minerals other than potassium contained in coconut water means that it's not a viable replacement for you daily meals. It's also not very cheap in Australia. However, if coconut water is your thing, make sure the sodium content is low and the drink is not artificially flavored, otherwise, it will be no better than a flavored sports drink.

    The purpose of this article is not to "debunk" the myths or glorify benefits of the chosen functional drinks. What I hope to achieve, is to help you looking at products like this in a more rational manner, and to understand that there are no shortcuts for living a healthy life.

  • The cause and cure for seasonal weight gain

    Many of us experience some degree of weight gain during the winter season. Some might argue that it is because we need to eat more during winter to keep warm (not true), some say it's because we do less outdoor activities in the cold. Myth or truth, this article explored the scientific findings behind the possible cause of seasonal weight gain and the ways to compact it. The information contained in this article is also relevant to people who have mood slumps or carb cravings due to a change of environment or weather. If you fall into any of the above categories, tune in.

    First thing first, yes, in general, some people are indeed more susceptible to weight gain during winter seasons. The cause of seasonal weight gain is mostly due to environmental factors, however, a possible genetic component has also been postulated. We do tend to eat more in winter, and especially crave for carbohydrate-rich foods, not because they can keep us warm, but they somehow can make us feel better. Does this sound like you? Here is why…

    SAD and Co.

    Yes, that's right, winter makes some of us SAD, acronym for Seasonal Affected Disorder, also known as seasonal depression. SAD is said to be "a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern", which usually occur in the autumn and winter and ends in spring and summer (Kurlansik and Ibay 2012, American Family Physician). The cause of SAD is largely due to the changes in lengths of days/nights and drop in temperatures in winter compared to summer. It's said that up to 10% of the population in the US has SAD, with a higher incidence in women than men (Miller 2005, Alternative Medicine Review). People with SAD can experience changes in mood, energy and appetite, which can result in depression, fatigue, carbohydrate consumption especially with cravings for sweats and starch-rich food and consequently result in weight gain. A study that analysed the eating habits of female SAD sufferers found that SAD patients are prone to emotional eating, thus leads to a higher chance of seasonal weight gain and a higher BMI compared to non-SAD sufferers (Krauchi 1997, Comprehensive Psychiatry).

    There are a number of possible explanations for the cause of SAD, including genetic predispositions, neurotransmitter abnormalities, both sound quite serious and a bit of gibberish to most people. However, neither really explains the seasonal rhythm of SAD. I'd go and seek professional medical help if your SAD is that serious. On a more relevant note, one of the most obvious differences between summer and winter seasons, other than the change in temperature, is the shortened daylight period, which will consequently affect a person's circadian rhythm (biological clock) (to learn about the circadian rhythm and BMI please read the Dec 2012 issue of Fit Lifestyle magazine). You don't really need to have clinical SAD to experience similar symptoms, and below are what I personally think is relevant to an average Joe like you and me that suffers seasonal mood and weight changes.

    The slight change in circadian rhythm will alter the production of melatonin, an endocrine hormone and a powerful antioxidant produced by the pineal gland into the blood. As the production of melatonin is kick-started by darkness and inhibited by light, it can be affected by the shortened daylight of winter. It was found that there is a delay in melatonin secretion in response to darkness in clinical SAD sufferers, and there is a difference in melatonin secretion pattern/levels in SAD patients as compared to normal people (Miller 2005, Alternative Medicine Review). A trial of 58 SAD patients were given high-dose of slow-release melatonin and a significant improvement in quality of sleep and vitality were observed, however melatonin therapy had no effect on mood (Leppamaki et al, 2003, European Neuropsychopharmacology). Go and see your doctor if you suspect you have melatonin issues.

    One cannot talk about mood changes without mentioning serotonin, a hormone that controls you mood, appetite and sleep. Inadequate levels of serotonin in the brain can cause carbohydrate cravings. Serotonin has also been found to be a controller of body weight by regulating the body's energy balance. Brain serotonin levels are relevant not only to SAD sufferers, but also to anyone who has mood swings associated with environmental or weather changes. For those who feel the cravings for carbs, it may be caused by inadequate serotonin levels in your brain. The best natural ways to increase serotonin levels, according to Young (2007, Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience) are:

    • Exposure to bright light. Uh-Huh! We live in a bright light-deprived society, where many people spend best part of their day indoors. The lights commonly used indoors do not have enough lux (luminous flux per unit area, a way to measure light intensity) to make you secrete enough serotonin. Whereas even the outdoor light on a cloudy day could make you happier. Get outdoors as much as possible without getting sun burnt, you could be happier and lighter in the process, kill two birds with one stone as they say.
    • Do exercise. It has been scientifically proven that the exercise can make you happy. It was hypothesized that the decline in vigorous physical exercise, in particular, effort based rewards compared to our ancestors may contribute to high levels of depression in the current society. Adequate exercise can increased serotonin levels and hence decrease carb cravings, and you can stay active and healthy in the process.
    • Diet. There is quite a bit of incorrect information floating around about this one. As serotonin is the metabolic product of tryptophan, ingestion of purified tryptophan has been found to increase brain serotonin levels. However, ingestion of food containing tryptophan does not, as the other amino acids contained in the food will compete with the tryptophan. The popular myth that is eating high protein food such as turkey can increase serotonin level, is false; similarly, the popular believe of eating bananas, which do indeed contain serotonin can improve mood, is also false, as the serotonin contained in bananas does not cross the blood-brain barrier to get into our brains to make us happy. In order for a food to increase brain serotonin levels, the tryptophan content of the food needs to be much higher than that of other amino acids, some example of those foods are specially cultivated chickpeas and alkali-processed corns.

    Vitamin D

    Some have stated that the reduced vitamin D synthesis caused by a reduction of sunlight (UV-B radiation) in winter compared to summer is one possible cause of seasonal weight gain and obesity (Foss 2009, Medical Hypothesis). This seems reasonable and indeed, low vitamin D status has been linked with an increased risk of weight gain and obesity. Vitamin D is thought to play a role in adipocyte (fat cell) death and genesis as well as lipid metabolism (Song and Sergeev 2012, Nutrition Research Reviews). However, taking vitamin D (often along with calcium) doesn't seem to make you thinner, as clinical intervention trials using vitamin D yielded controversial results. There is no concrete scientific evidence in humans to indicate supplementation of vitamin D can prevent obesity in real life situations, yet.

    Some may also argue that vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression and can lead to "emotional eating" and hence weight gain. Well, believe it or not, that is also a myth, well, more like an exaggerated truth. Yes, there is an association between low vitamin D levels and depression however, there is currently insufficient evidence to say that vitamin D deficiency is the antecedent cause or consequence of depression (Parker and Brotchie 2011, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica). So can lower vitamin D synthesis in winter cause weight gain? Not sure about that, but in case it does, get into the sun more often and consume food or supplements that contain vitamin D will be sufficient.

    It's not me, blame the genes!

    There seems to be a gene linked to everything these days and weight gain is no exception. There is an established genetic component in weight related disorders such as obesity, where a percentage of people have the genes to allow them to gain weight more easily than others. This phenomenon has puzzled scientists as the survival of these weight gain genes in the human population defies the theory of "survival of fittest", there is nothing "fit" about been obese.

    Two main theories have been postulated in order to explain the presence of fat gaining genes, the "thrifty gene hypothesis" initially proposed by James Neel in 1962, and the "drifty gene hypothesis" first proposed by John Speakman in 2008. Scientists supporting each of the hypothesis argued with each other about the details of what kind of selection pressure required during the history of mankind to allow these genes to survive. Let's leave that part to the scientists, what is relevant, is that, scientists from both sides agreed that there is a genetic predisposition in a population of people so that some people are more prone to weight gain than others. This genetic predisposition is kept there because historically speaking, ancient humans faced famine, seasonal shortage of food and predation (or lack of), hence needed to store fat to have the energy required for survival during periods of abundance. In a developed modern society however, for instance, Australia, there is a perpetual abundance of food, and a lack of predators that feed on us humans. What was historically advantageous for survival became the culprit for causing widespread weight gain and obesity.

    So, some people are genetically prone to gain weight, big deal, because ultimately, weight management is all about calories in and calories out, the choice is yours. If you eat well and exercise adequately, there is really no reason for you to gain weight any more than other people. Think of the number of calories required per day as the speed limit, and to have the "fat gene" means you have a relatively faster car than the average shopping trollies found on roads. It's easier for you to speed if you put your foot down, but there's no excuse, watch the speedometer and exercise discretion, you are more than capable of staying within the limit. It may be is the genes, but it is definitely up to you.

    Final words

    The purpose of this article is to show the scientific understandings behind seasonal weight gain, mood slumps and emotional eating. Not to succumb to the food cravings, instead, continue to eat healthy, spend more time outdoors and do adequate exercise, are probably the most effective natural cures to deal with these kinds of problems. It is all in your hands.

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